Approaches in Psychology Key Terms

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  • Created on: 15-02-16 18:29
Empiricism
The belief that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience. It is generally characterised by the use of the scientific method in psychology.
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Introspection
The process by which a person gains knowledge about his or her own mental and emotional syayes as a result of examination or observation of their conscious thoughts and feelings.
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Scientific method
Refers to the use of investigative methods that are objective, systematic and replicable, and the formulation, testing and modification of hypotheses based on these methods.
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Behaviourist
People who believe that human behaviour can be explained in terms of conditioning, without the need to consider thoughts or feelings.
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Classical conditioning
When a neutral stimulus is consistently paired with an unconditioned stimulus so that it eventually takes on the properties of this stimulus and is able to produce a conditioned response.
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Operant conditioning
Learning through reinforcement or punishment. If a behaviour is followed by a desirable consequence then that behaviour is more likely to occur again in the future.
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Punishment
Involves the application of an unpleasant consequence following a behaviour, with the result that the behaviour is less likely to occur again in the future.
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Reinforcement
A term used in psychology to refer to anything that strengthens a response and increases the likelihood that it will occur again in the future.
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Identification
A form of influence where an individual adopts an attitude or behaviour because they want to be associated with a particular person or group.
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Imitation
The action of using someone or something as a model and copying their behaviour.
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Mediational processes
Refers to the internal mental processes that exist between environmental stimuli and the response made by an individual to those stimuli.
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Modelling
A form of learning where individuals learn a particular behaviour by observing
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Social learning theory
Learning through observing others and imitating behaviours that are rewarded.
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Vicarious reinforcement
Learning that is not a result of direct reinforcement of behaviour, but through observing someone else being reinforced for that behaviour.
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Cognitive
Relates to mental processes such as perception, memory and reasoning.
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Cognitive neuroscience
An area of psychology dedicated to the underlying neural bases of cognitive functions.
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Computer model
Refers to the process of using computer analogies as a representation of human cognition.
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Inference/inferring
This means reaching a logical conclusion on the basis of evidence and reasoning.
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Schema
A cognitive framework that helps to organise and interpret information in the brain. Schemas help an individual to make sense of new information.
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Theoretical models
In cognitive psychology, models are simplified, usually pictorial, representations of a particular mental process based on current research evidence.
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Biological approach
Views humans as biological organisms and so provides biological explanations for all aspects of psychological functioning.
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Evolution
Refers to the change over successive generations of the genetic make-up of a particular population. The central proposition of an evolutionary perspective is that the genotype of a population is changeable rather than fixed.
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Gene
A part of the chromosome of an organism that carries information in the form of DNA.
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Genotype
The genetic make-up of an individual. The genotype is a collection of inherited genetic material that is passed from generation to generation.
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Natural selection
The process by which inherited characteristics that enhance an individual's reproductive success are passed on to
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Neurochemistry
The study of chemical and neural processes associated with the nervous system.
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Phenotype
The observable characteristics of an individual. This is a consequence of the interaction of the genotype with the environment.
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Card 2

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The process by which a person gains knowledge about his or her own mental and emotional syayes as a result of examination or observation of their conscious thoughts and feelings.

Back

Introspection

Card 3

Front

Refers to the use of investigative methods that are objective, systematic and replicable, and the formulation, testing and modification of hypotheses based on these methods.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

People who believe that human behaviour can be explained in terms of conditioning, without the need to consider thoughts or feelings.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

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When a neutral stimulus is consistently paired with an unconditioned stimulus so that it eventually takes on the properties of this stimulus and is able to produce a conditioned response.

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