Approaches in psychology

HideShow resource information
Empiricism
belief that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience
1 of 27
Introspection
Person gains knowledge about their mental and emotional states as a result of the examination of their conscious thoughts and feelings
2 of 27
Scientific method
use of investigative methods that are objective, systematic and replicable, and the formulation, testing and modification of hypotheses based on these methods
3 of 27
Behaviourist
People who believe that human behaviour can be explained in terms of conditioning, without the need to consider thoughts or feelings
4 of 27
Classical conditioning
when a neutral stimulus is consistently paired with an unconditioned stimulus so that it eventually takes on the properties of the stimulus and is able to produce a conditioned response
5 of 27
Operant conditioning
learning through reinforcement or punishment
6 of 27
Punishment
involves the application of an unpleasant consequence following a behaviour is less likely to occur again in the future
7 of 27
Reinforcement
A term used in psychology to refer to anything that strengthens a response and increases the likelihood that it will occur again in the future
8 of 27
Identification
Form of influence where an individual develops an attitude or behaviour because they want to be associated with a particular group or person
9 of 27
Imitation
the action of using someone or something as a model and copying their behaviour.
10 of 27
Mediational processes
internal mental processes that exist between environmental stimuli and the response made by an individual to those stimuli
11 of 27
modelling
a form of learning where individuals learn a particular behaviour by observing another individual performing that behaviour
12 of 27
Social learning theory
Learning through observing others and imitating behaviours that are rewarded
13 of 27
Vicarious reinforcement
learning that is not a result of direct reinforcement of behaviour but through observing someone else being reinforced for that behaviour
14 of 27
Cognitive
relates to mental processes such as perception, memory and reasoning
15 of 27
Cognitive neuroscience
underlying neural bases of cognitive functions
16 of 27
Computer model
process of using computer analogies as a representation of human cognition
17 of 27
inference
reaching a logical conclusion on the basis of evidence and reasoning
18 of 27
Schema
cognitive framework that helps to organise and interpret info in the brain and helps an individual make sense of new information
19 of 27
Theoretical models
models are simplified e.g. working memory model
20 of 27
Biological approach
views humans as biological organisms and so provides biological explanations for all aspects of psychological functioning
21 of 27
Evolution
refers to the change over successive generations of the genetic makeup of a particular population
22 of 27
Gene
part of the chromosome of an organism that carries information in a form of dna
23 of 27
Genotype
genetic make up of an individual
24 of 27
Natural selection
process by which inherited characteritics that enhance an individuals reproductive success and are passed on to the next generation
25 of 27
Neurochemistry
study of chemical and neural processes associated with the nervous system
26 of 27
Phenotype
observable characteristics of an individual
27 of 27

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Introspection

Back

Person gains knowledge about their mental and emotional states as a result of the examination of their conscious thoughts and feelings

Card 3

Front

Scientific method

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Behaviourist

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Classical conditioning

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Approaches resources »