Approaches in psychology

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belief that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience
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Person gains knowledge about their mental and emotional states as a result of the examination of their conscious thoughts and feelings
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Scientific method
use of investigative methods that are objective, systematic and replicable, and the formulation, testing and modification of hypotheses based on these methods
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People who believe that human behaviour can be explained in terms of conditioning, without the need to consider thoughts or feelings
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Classical conditioning
when a neutral stimulus is consistently paired with an unconditioned stimulus so that it eventually takes on the properties of the stimulus and is able to produce a conditioned response
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Operant conditioning
learning through reinforcement or punishment
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involves the application of an unpleasant consequence following a behaviour is less likely to occur again in the future
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A term used in psychology to refer to anything that strengthens a response and increases the likelihood that it will occur again in the future
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Form of influence where an individual develops an attitude or behaviour because they want to be associated with a particular group or person
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the action of using someone or something as a model and copying their behaviour.
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Mediational processes
internal mental processes that exist between environmental stimuli and the response made by an individual to those stimuli
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a form of learning where individuals learn a particular behaviour by observing another individual performing that behaviour
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Social learning theory
Learning through observing others and imitating behaviours that are rewarded
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Vicarious reinforcement
learning that is not a result of direct reinforcement of behaviour but through observing someone else being reinforced for that behaviour
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relates to mental processes such as perception, memory and reasoning
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Cognitive neuroscience
underlying neural bases of cognitive functions
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Computer model
process of using computer analogies as a representation of human cognition
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reaching a logical conclusion on the basis of evidence and reasoning
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cognitive framework that helps to organise and interpret info in the brain and helps an individual make sense of new information
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Theoretical models
models are simplified e.g. working memory model
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Biological approach
views humans as biological organisms and so provides biological explanations for all aspects of psychological functioning
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refers to the change over successive generations of the genetic makeup of a particular population
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part of the chromosome of an organism that carries information in a form of dna
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genetic make up of an individual
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Natural selection
process by which inherited characteritics that enhance an individuals reproductive success and are passed on to the next generation
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study of chemical and neural processes associated with the nervous system
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observable characteristics of an individual
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Person gains knowledge about their mental and emotional states as a result of the examination of their conscious thoughts and feelings

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Scientific method


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Classical conditioning


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