approaches ; humanistic approach

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- free will
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claims that human beings have free will and are essentially?
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does this mean we're not affected by int/external influences?
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but we have the ability to determine our own developments and are?
active agents
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for this reason rogers and maslow reject scientific models that attempt to?
establish general principles of human behaviour
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as active agents we are all unique and psych should concern itself with the study of what instead?
subjective experience
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what kind of approach is this referred to as?
person-centred approach
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- self-actualisation
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every person has an innate tendency to do what?
achieve full potential
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self-actualisation represents the uppermost level of what structure?
maslow's hierarchy of needs
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what are all four lower levels of the hierarchy called?
deficiency needs
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and self actualisation?
growth need
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personal growth is an essential part of?
what it is to be human
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personal growth is concerned with developing as a person to become more?
fulfilled / satisfied / goal-orientated
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will everyone manage this?
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what will stop them from reaching potential?
psychological barriers
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- self / congruence / condts of worth
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for personal growth to be achieved the concept of self must have congruence wtih?
ideal self
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what is self?
the way they see themselves
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and ideal self?
the person they want to be
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what will they experience if too big a gap exists?
state of incongruence
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and what won't be possible?
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negative feelings of self-worth
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in order to reduce the gap what did rogers develop?
client-centred therapy
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to help people cope with?
problems of everyday living
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he claimed many of the issues we experience as adults have roots?
in childhood
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and often can be explained by a lack of what from parents?
unconditional positive regoard
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what is it called when a parent sets boundaries / limits on love for child?
conditions of worth
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rogers saw one of his roles as an effective therapist as being able to provide clients with?
unconditional positive regard they didn't get as kids
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:( not reductionist
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humanists reject any attempt to do what with behaviour?
break up into smaller components
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instead humanists advocate what
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which is the idea that subjective experience can only be understood how?
considering the whole person
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the approach may have more validity than alternatives how?
considering meaningful behaviour within real life context
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:( limited application
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true rogerian therapy has revolutionised what?
conselling techniques
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and maslow's hierarchy of needs has been used to explain?
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but it remains the case that the approach has limited impact where?
within the discipline of psychology
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may in part be due to its lacking of?
sound evidence-base
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and also due to fact it has been described not as a comprehensive theory but rather?
loose set of rather abstract concepts
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:) positive approach
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been praised for bringing what bakc to psych?
the person
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and promoting a positive image of?
the human condition
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freud saw humans as slaves to?
their past
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but humanistic psychology sees all people as basically?
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free to work towards?
achievement of their potential
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and in control of?
their own lives
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:( untestable concepts
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things like self actualisation and congruence are useful when?
in therapy
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but problematic to assess how?
under experimental condts
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rogers did attempt to introduce more rigour by developing what?
the Q-sort
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which was an objective measure of?
progress in therapy
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nevertheless it's short on what kind of evidence to support claims/
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:( cultural bias
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associated with what type of culture>
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collectivist cultures emphasise what?
needs of the group
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therefore possible this approach is a product of?
cultural context it was developed in
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- free will



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claims that human beings have free will and are essentially?


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Card 4


does this mean we're not affected by int/external influences?


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Card 5


but we have the ability to determine our own developments and are?


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