Approaches Flashcards

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  • Created by: Haider_A
  • Created on: 21-04-18 16:43
Empiricism (Origins of Psychology)
The belief that all knowledge is derives from sensory experience. It is generally characterised by the use of scientific method in psychology
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Introspection (Origins of Psychology)
The process by which a person gains knowledge about his/her own mental and emotional states, as a result of the examination or observation of their conscious thoughts and feelings
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Scientific Method (Origins of Psychology)
Refers to the use of investigative methods that are objective, systematic and replicable and the formulation, testing and modification of hypotheses based on these methods
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Behaviourist (The Behaviourist Approach)
People who believe that human behaviour can be explained in terms of conditioning, without the need to consider thoughts or feelings
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Classical Conditioning (The Behaviourist Approach)
When a NS is consistently paired with an UCS so that it eventually takes on the properties of this stimulus and is able to produce a conditioned response
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Operant Conditioning (The Behaviourist Approach)
Learning through reinforcement or punishment. If a behaviour is follow by a desirable consequence, then the behaviour is more likely to occur again in the future
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Punishment (The Behaviourist Approach)
Involves the application of an unpleasant consequence following a behaviour, with the result that the behaviour is less likely to occur again in the future
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Reinforcement (The Behaviourist Approach)
Refers to anything that strengthens a response and increases the likelihood that it will occur again in the future
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Positive Reinforcement (The Behaviourist Approach)
Occurs when behaviour produces a consequence that is satisfying or pleasant for the organism
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Negative Reinforcement (The Behaviourist Approach)
Works because they remove something aversive (unpleasant) and so restore the organism to its "pre-aversive" state
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Identification (Social Learning Theory)
A form of influence where an individual adopts an attitude or behaviour because they want to be associated with a particular person or group
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Imitation (Social Learning Theory)
The action of using someone or something as a model and copying their behaviour
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Mediational Processes (Social Learning Theory)
Refers to the internal mental processes that exist between environmental stimuli and the response made by an individual to those stimuli
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Modelling (Social Learning Theory)
A form of learning where individuals learn a particular behaviour by observing another individual performing that behaviour
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Social Learning Theory
Learning through observing others and imitating behaviours that are rewarded
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Vicarious Reinforcement (Social Learning Theory)
Learning that is not a result of direct reinforcement of behaviour, but through observing someone else being reinforced for that behaviour
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Cognitive (The Cognitive Approach)
Refers to mental processes such as perception, memory and reasoning
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Cognitive Neuroscience (The Cognitive Approach)
An area of psychology dedicated to the underlying neural bases of cognitive functions
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Computer Model (The Cognitive Approach)
Refers to the process of using computer analogies as a representation of human cognition
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Inference/Inferring (The Cognitive Approach)
Means reaching a logical conclusion on the basis of evidence and reasoning
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Schema (The Cognitive Approach)
A cognitive framework that helps to organise and interpret information in the brain. Schemas help an individual make sense of new information.
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Theoretical Models (The Cognitive Approach)
In cognitive psychology, models are simplified, usually pictorial, representations of a particular mental process based on current research evidence
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Biological Approach
Views humans as biological organisms and so provides biological explanations for all aspects of psychological functioning
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Evolution (The Biological Approach)
Refers to the change over successive generations of the genetic make-up of a particular population. The central proposition is that the genotype of a population is changeable rather than fixed and the change is likely to be caused by natural selectio
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Gene (The Biological Approach)
A part of the chromosome of an organism that carries information in the form of DNA
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Genotype (The Biological Approach)
The genetic make-up of an individual. The genotype is a collection of inherited genetic material that is passes from generation to generation
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Natural Selection (The Biological Approach)
Process by which inherited characteristics that enhance an individual's reproductive success (or "fitness") are passed onto the next generation and so become more widespread in a population over time
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Neurochemistry (The Biological Approach)
The study of chemical and neural processes associated with the nervous system
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Phenotype (The Biological Approach)
The observable characteristics of an individual. This is a consequence of the interaction of the genotype with the environment
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Defence Mechanisms (The Psychodyamic Approach)
Unconscious strategies that protect our conscious mind from anxiety. Defence mechanisms involve a distortion of reality in some way, so that we are better able to cope with a situation
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Psychoanalysis (The Psychodyamic Approach)
A term used to describe the personality theory and therapy associated with Sigmund Freud
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Psychodynamic
Refers to any theory that emphasises change and development in the individual, particularly those theories where "drive" is a central concept in development. The best known psychodyamic theory is Freud's psychoanalysis
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Unconscious (The Psychodyamic Approach)
The part of the human mind that contains repressed ideas and memories, as well as primitive desires and impulses that have never been allowed to enter the conscious mind
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Conditions of Worth (Humanistic Psychology)
Conditions imposed on an individual's behaviour and development that are considered necessary to earn positive regard from significant others
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Congruence (Humanistic Psychology)
If there is a similarity between a person's ideal self and self-image, a state of congruence exists. A difference represents an incongruence
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Free Will (Humanistic Psychology)
The ability to act at one's own discretion, i.e. to choose how to behave without being influenced by external factors
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Hierachy of Needs (Humanistic Psychology)
The motivational theory proposed by Abraham Maslow, often displayed as a pyramid. The most basic needs are at the bottom, the higher needs at the top
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Humanistic (Humanistic Psychology)
Refers to the belief that human beings are born with the desire to grow, create and to love and have the power to direct their own lives
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Self (Humanistic Psychology)
Our personal identity, used syonymously with the terms "self image" and "self concept"
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Self-Actualisation (Humanistic Psychology)
A term used in different ways. Rogers used it as the drive to realise one's true potential. Maslow used it to describe the final stage of his hierarchy of needs
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Determinism (Comparison of Approaches)
Behaviour is determined by external or internal factors acting upon the individual
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Nature (Comparison of Approaches)
Behaviour is seen to be a product of innate (biological or genetic) factors
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Nurture (Comparison of Approaches)
Behaviour is a product of environmental influence
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Science (Comparison of Approaches)
A systematic approach to creating knowledge. The method used to gain scientific knowledge is referred to as the scientific method.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The process by which a person gains knowledge about his/her own mental and emotional states, as a result of the examination or observation of their conscious thoughts and feelings

Back

Introspection (Origins of Psychology)

Card 3

Front

Refers to the use of investigative methods that are objective, systematic and replicable and the formulation, testing and modification of hypotheses based on these methods

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

People who believe that human behaviour can be explained in terms of conditioning, without the need to consider thoughts or feelings

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

When a NS is consistently paired with an UCS so that it eventually takes on the properties of this stimulus and is able to produce a conditioned response

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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