approaches core studies

cognative aproach
focuses on mental processes. Assumes processes underlying behaviour can be measured in a scientific way so tends to use laboratory studies and standardised self-report measures. It investigates processes such as attention, memory, and decision making
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cogative studies under memory?
loftus and palmer and grant
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cognative studies under attention?
moray and simons and chabris
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stregnths of cognative?
Practical applications: Informs us about how mental processes work, such as memory. Support with Grant’s findings and how they can be applied by students.
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2nd stregnth of cognative?
Tends to use laboratory experiments which are highly controlled, as it assumes mental processes can be studied scientifically. Explain how Loftus and Palmer is a laboratory experiment (IV, DV, and controls) and how this improves the validity or rel
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weaknesses of cognative?
Reductionist: ignores genetic influences on mental processes
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how to support weakness of cognative reductionist with evidence?
Support with Loftus & Palmer’s findings/ conclusions from Exp. 2 and explain how they ignore genetic differences in memory ability and how this could explain why some people experienced memory distortion and others did not. applications= not effectiv
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2nd weaknesses cogantive?
Tends to use laboratory experiments which a lack ecological validity, as it assumes mental processes can be studied scientifically. Explain how Loftus and Palmer is a laboratory experiment (IV, DV, and controls) = reduces the applicability of findin
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individual differences approach assumptions?
focuses on investigating how people’s behaviour, biology, and cognition differ in order to understand the complexity of behaviour. It investigates differences between people such as personality and abnormality.
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what does the individual diffferences approach tend to be?
It tends to take a holistic approach exploring how many factors interact to make a person unique.
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individual differences studies under abnormality and mental illness?
freud and baron-cohen
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individual differences studies under measuring differences?
goluds review of yerks and hancock
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stregnths of individual differences?
Practical applications: attempts to explain differences between people such as abnormalities, so informs us about mental illness. o Support with Baron-Cohen’s findings on Autism + how his test = applied to diagnose autism of the High-functioning
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2nd stregnth of indivdual?
Tends to use case study methods to investigate one individual in-depth and how factors interact to produce their unique patterns of traits and behaviour. .
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how to link freuds study to stregnth of case study?
Explain how Freud is a case study, referring to its length and sample. Outline strength of gather lots of longitudinal, qualitative data regarding the ability to explain why the phobia occurred and how it responded to psychoanalytic therapy.
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weaknesses of individual differences?
It is holistic, which means it is difficult to demonstrate cause and effect, as it investigates how multiple factors interact to produce an individual’s unique patterns of traits and behaviours. o Explain Freud’s use of multiple methods of data coll
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how to relate freud to weakness of individual= hollisitic?
Explain Freud’s use of multiple methods of data collection and how he investigated both the influence of Nature (the Id) and Nurture (influence of parenting). Outline how the study cannot demonstrate cause and effect.
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2nd weakness of individual?
Tends to use case study methods to investigate one individual in-depth and how factors interact to produce their unique patterns of traits and behaviour, which lacks generalisability.
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how to link freud to weakness of case studies?
Explain how Freud is a case study, referring to its length and sample. Outline weakness of population validity and how it can’t explain other’s phobias
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the psychodyamic approach assumptions?
- focuses on investigating the unconscious mind through projective tests (i.e. Rorschach ink blot) and dream analysis.
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psychodyammic approach assumptions pt 2?
. Assumes undesirable behaviour or thoughts are the result of internal conflicts of the unconscious mind which can be accessed by a therapist and talked through to reach a resolution.
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psychodyammic approach assumptions pt 3?
Personality is assumed to be formed of 3 elements: the id (the instincts humans are born with, i.e. libido), the ego (mediates between the id and super-ego on the reality principle) and the super-ego (ideal self based on internalised parent’s voices)
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psychodyammic approach assumptions pt 4?
All children are believed to go through 5 stages of psychosexual development: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital as part of the development of personality. A fixation in one of these stages can be caused by parental responses.
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studies under abnormality and mental illness?
freud
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studies under measuring differences?
hancock
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how does hancock relate to psychodynamic approach?
it suggests a lack of affective language and increased reference to lower order physiological needs on Maslow’s hierarchy may be explained by psychosexual personality development: that the Ego has not fully developed and ID motivates pleasure behavio
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stregnths of psychodynamic?
Practical applications: Informs us about how the unconscious can affect behaviour.
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how to link practical applications to freud?
Support with Freud’s conclusions about Little Hans’ phobia, and how it could be treated, i.e. psychoanalytic therapy using dream analysis to identify internal conflicts and then resolve them through the talking cure
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psychodynamic 2nd stregnth?
Tends to use dream analysis to investigate unconscious mental processes.
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how to link freud with stregnth dream anaylsis?
Explain Freud’s use of dream analysis and findings from it in the Little Hans study. Outline strength that it allows researchers to study to unconscious which cannot be accessed through self-report, physiological measures, or observation, and gathe
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weaknesses of psychodynamic?
t is holistic, which means it is difficult to demonstrate cause and effect, as it investigates how nature (the Id) and nurture (parenting) interact to produce traits.
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how to link freud with hollisum of psychdynamic?
Explain Freud’s use of multiple methods of data collection and how he investigated both the influence of Nature (the Id) and Nurture (influence of parenting).this study cannot show cause and effect
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2nd weakness for psychodynamic?
Tends to use dream analysis to investigate unconscious mental processes which is unscientific. o Explain Freud’s use of dream analysis and findings from it in the Little Hans study.weakness= dreams are open to interpretation- many differ between ppl
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developmental approach assumptions?
The developmental approach tends to assume human behaviour is the result of nurture and therefore due to external influences, and often that it occurs in stages. studies humans pre-natally - old age,oftern investiagates child= how behavior is learnt
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studies under extenal influences on childrens behviour?
bandura and chaney
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studies under moral development?
kholberg and lee
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stregnths of developmental?
Practical applications: Informs us about how children develop traits like aggression. Support with Bandura’s conclusions on Social Learning theory and how they can be applied in preventing aggression
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2nd stregnth of developmental?
Tends to use longitudinal methods to study the development of behaviour over time, which provides more in-depth data.
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how to link chaney with stregnth of longitudinal?
Explain how Chaney could be considered longitudinal (telephone interviews over the 2wk period), and how exploring whether adherence improved over a 2 week period is more useful than just measuring at one point in time, adherence could be confouded
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weaknesses of developmental?
Reductionist: tends to focus on nurture to explain developmental changes, such as external influences on children’s behaviour, ignoring nature.
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how to link chaney with reductionsit?
Support with Chaney’s conclusions and how it ignores other explanations for adherence such as physiological reaction to the medication which can be determined by genes. Elaborate on how applications based on these conclusions may not be effective
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2nd weakness developmental?
Tends to use longitudinal methods to study the development of behaviour over time, which makes data collection more time consuming for researchers.
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how to link chaney with longitudinal weakness?
Explain how Chaney could be considered longitudinal (telephone interviews over the 2wk period), and how, as it was time consuming, only a small population were studied, lowering population validity.
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behaviorisum approach assumptions?
assumes that when a person is born, their mind is a blank slate ('tabula rasa'). All behaviour is therefore learnt from the environment through classical or operant conditioning (rewards) or social learning.
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what is behaviourisum primarly concered with?
It’s primarily concerned with observable behaviour, because this behaviour can be objectively and scientifically measured
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studies on extenal influences on childrens behaviour?
bandura and chaney
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stregnths of behaviorisum?
Practical applications: Informs us how humans learn. o Support with Bandura’s conclusions on Social Learning theory and how they can be applied in education
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2nd stregnth behaviourisum?
Uses observational methods, which are more scientific as they are empirical and data collection can be standardised, as it assumes only observable behaviour can be scientifically measured/
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how to link bandura with observational methods stregnth?
Explain how Bandura used observation and how his use of event sampling made the results more reliable.
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weaknesses of behviorisum?
Reductionist: ignores the influence of nature on behaviour, as it assumes humans are born a blank slate. o Support with Chaney’s conclusions and how it ignores other explanations for changes in adherence such as social factors.
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2nd weakness behaviourist?
Uses observational methods, which are vulnerable to observer bias, as it assumes only observable behaviour can be scientifically measured. o Outline Bandura’s findings, and explain how aggressive behaviours could have been mis-recorded as imitative.
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biological approach assumptions?
focuses on the relationship between our biological makeup and our behaviour and experiences. Since the mind appears to reside in the brain, all thoughts, feelings and behaviours ultimately have a Biological caus
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what biological causes are in biological assumptions?
neurological dysfunction (abnormal brain activity), dysfunctional genes, or imbalances in hormones and neurotransmitters (chemicals which control processes in the body and brain respectively).
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what happens if a biological cause is assumed?
, it means that medical treatments like drugs and psychosurgery tend to be used to change behaviour.
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studies under brain regions?
sperry and casey
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studies under brain plasticity?
blakemore and cooper and maguire
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stregnths of biological?
Practical applications: Informs us about biological factors which influence behaviour which can then be used in psychosurgery.
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how to link sperry with pratical applications?
Support with Sperry’s conclusions about the effect of severing the corpus callosum and the function of the hemispheres, and how this can be used to inform neuroscience and develop more effective brain surgeries which limit brain injury etc
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2nd stregnth biological?
Tends to use scientific physiological measures, which measure biological factors in a standardised and objective way.
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how to link casey with physiological measures?
Explain how Casey used fMRI and how data obtained from an fMRI is quantitative and processed by automated programmes which means it’s easy to compare low and high delayers in a standardised way without being effected by researcher bias.
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weakness of biological?
Reductionist: ignores the influence of social factors on behaviour, as it focuses on the influence of biological factors. o Support with Casey’s conclusions and how it ignores other explanations for impulsivity such as role models.
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2nd weakness biological?
Tends to use physiological measures, which can only measure correlates of behaviour. o Outline Casey’s findings from Exp.2 and how it cannot be certain that the patterns of brain activity or patterns in brain activity.
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social approach assumptions?
concerned with the interactions between people. It assumes that the group behaviour can influence the individual (even if the individual believes they are not being influenced).
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what does the social approach look for?
It therefore looks for explanations of behaviour involving social communication, social relationships and the influence of other people or the environment/situation on the individual.
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studies under reponses to people in authority?
milgram and bocchario
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studies under reponses to people in need?
pilavin and levine
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stregnths of social?
Practical applications: Informs us about the influence other people and the social context have on behaviour. o Support with Milgram’s conclusions explaining how the situation affected obedience, and how this can be applied to prevent atrocities.
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2nd stregnth social?
Tends to use methods high in ecological validity, such as scenario studies or field experiments, to measure social behaviours in an environment reflective of the real social context. = scenario students were presented with in Bocchiaro = realistic
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weaknesses of social?
Reductionist: ignores the influence of biological factors on behaviour, as it focuses on the influence of social context and others.
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how to link milgram with reductionist?
Support with Milgram’s conclusions and how it ignores other explanations for responses to people in authority such as genetic traits. Elaborate on how applications based on these conclusions may therefore not be effective.
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2nd weakness of social?
Tends to use methods high in ecological validity, such as scenario studies or field experiments, to measure social behaviours in an environment reflective of the real social context. These methods do not demonstrate clear cause and effect.
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how does bocchiaro link with ecological validty weakness?
Explain the scenario students were presented with in Bocchiaro, and how this cannot demonstrate cause and effect as no variable was manipulated to test its effect/ there was no comparison group.
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cogative studies under memory?

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loftus and palmer and grant

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cognative studies under attention?

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stregnths of cognative?

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2nd stregnth of cognative?

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