approaches ; biological approach

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- assumptions
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suggests everythign psychological is first?
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so to fully understand behaviour we must look to which two things?
biological structures / bodily processes
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an understanding of what can explain thoughts and behaviour?
brain structure and function
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mind lives in the brain meaning?
all thoughts / feelings / behaviour ultimately have physical basis
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this is in contrast to cognitive approach that sees?
mental processes separate from physical brain
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- genetic basis of behaviour
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geneticists study what about behaviour?
whether its inherited in the same way as physical characteristics
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what are used to determine likelihood of trait's genetic basis?
twin studies
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by comparing what between DZ / MZ twins?
concordance rates
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- genotype and phenotype
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what is a genotype?
actual genetic makeup
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whereas phenotype?
way genes are expressed through physical / behavioural / psych characteristics
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expression of genotype is inevitable influenced by?
environmental factors
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illustrates much of human behaviour depends upon what?
interaction of nature ad nurture
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- evolution and behaviour
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what is darwin's theory?
natural selection
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the principle of this theory is that what will continue in future generations?
any genetically determined behaviour that enhances individuals survival / reproduction
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why does the selection occur in nature?
bc some traits give possessor certain advantages
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:) scientific methods of investigation
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include scanning techniques like?
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as well as what kind of studies?
family / twin
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and trials?
drug trials
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with advances in tech its possible to accurately measure what kind of processes unbiasedly?
bio / neural
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this means bio approach is based on?
reliable data
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:) real-life application
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increased understanding of biochem processes in brain has led to dev of?
psychoactive drugs
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that treat serious mental illnesses like?
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are these drugs effective for all patients?
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this is a strength because means sufferers are able to manage condt and?
live relatively normal life
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:( causal conclusions
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bio approach offers exps for mental illnesses in terms of?
neurotransmitter actions in the brain
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this evidence for this relationshiop come from studies showing what about certain drugs?
they reduce symptoms of a mental disorder
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and therefore its assumed what about the neurochemical in the drug?
causes the disorder
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discovering association though does not mean?
its a cause
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this is a limitation bc the bio approach is claiming to have discovered causes when?
only association exists
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:( deterministic view of behaviour
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determinist bc sees all human behaviour governed by?
internal biological causes
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this has wider implications for legal system why?
bc one of laws is offenders seen legaly and morally responsible for actions
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:( cannot separate nature and nurture
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what is the important confounding variable in twin studies?
all in same family are also exposed to similar environmental conditions
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this means findings could just as easily be interpreted to support?
nurture > nature
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this approach aso has difficulty accounting for the fact in rsrch studies what about DZ?
they have higher concordance rates than pairs of ordinary siblings
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how can nurture explain this?
not only 50% DNA but also grew up in same place @ same time which influences
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which points towards?
interactionist approach
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Card 2


- assumptions



Card 3


suggests everythign psychological is first?


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Card 4


so to fully understand behaviour we must look to which two things?


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Card 5


an understanding of what can explain thoughts and behaviour?


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