Origins of psychology
Wundt-first lab in Leipzig, germany 1879, describe the nature of human conciousness, known as introspection, were wundt and his co workers recorded their own conscious thoughts, images and sensations and isolating them, known as structuralism
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Behaviourist approach
A way of explaining behaviour in terms of what is observable in terms of learning.
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Classical conditioning
pavlov-dogs, before conditioning, the food was the UCS and the UCR was salivation. The bell was the NS and there was no CR, during conditioning, the bell and food produed the
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Operant conditioning
skinner-skinner box where everytime a rat activated a lever, it was rewarded with food, then changed to if they did the same behaviour they were electrocuted. Positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment.
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social learning theory
Includes both direct and indirect reinforcement, combining learning theory with the role of cog factors.
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Bobo dolls 1
Bandura proposed people learn by imitation. He recorded young kids who watched an adult behave aggressively toward a bobo doll and shouted at it, then the children played with the bobo doll and were more aggressive towards it than those who observed
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Bobo dolls 2
a non-aggressive adult.
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Vicarious reinforcement
Reinforcement which is not directly experienced but occurs through observing someone else being reinforced for a behaviour.
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imitating the behaviour of a role model.
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an observer associates themselves with a role model and wants to be like the role model.
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mediational processes 1
-cognitive factors that influence learning and come between stimulus and response.Attention-extent to which we notice certain behaviours. Retention-how well the behaviour is remembered. Motor reproduction-the ability to perform the behaviour.
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mediational processes 2
Motivation-the will to perform the behaviour.
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cognitive approach
focused on how our mental processes(e.g thoughts, perceptions, attention) affect behaviour.
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internal mental processes
private operations of the mind such as perception and attention that mediate between stimulus and response.
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theoretical and computer models
information processing approach-info flows through the cg in a sequence like the msm. Computer models-we think like computers.
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-a mental framework of beliefs and expectations that influence cognitive processing and are developed from experience.
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cognitive neuroscience
-the scientific study of biological structures that underpin cognitive processes.
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biological approach
a perspective that emphasises the importance of physical processes in the body such as genetic inheritance and neural function.
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twin studies
use concordance rates in twins-if monozygotic, concordance rates that dizygotics as MZ share 100% DNA but DZ only share 50%, like normal siblings.
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genotype and phenotype
Genotype-the particular set of genes a person has. Phenotype-the characteristics a person has, determined by genes and the environment.
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the changes in inherited characteristics in a biological population over successive generations.
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Biopsychology 1
the nervous system.-divided into 2 sub systems, the CNS and PNS, the CNS is the brain and spinal cord, the PNS transmits messages via neurons made up of the ANS,which is breathing, heart rate and digestion,
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Biopsychology 2
which can be split into the parasympathetic and sympathetic state, and the SNS which controls muscle movement and receives info from sensory receptors.
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Biopsychology-the endocrine system
made up of gland which release hormones into the blood stream,Fight or flight.
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fight or flight
Body changes from parasympathetic state to sympathetic state, BP, HR, increase, digestion decreases, pupils dilate, saliva inhibited, rectum contracts.
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Sensory-carry messages from PNS to CNS, long dendrites, short axons. Relay neurons-connect sensory neurons to motor neurons, Short dendrites, short axons, Motor neurons-connect CNS to effectors, short dendrites, long axons.
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electric transmission
when a neuron is activated by a stimulus, the inside of the cell becomes +ve charged for a split second, causing action potential, which creates an electrical impulse.
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chemical transmission
when impulse reaches the presynaptic terminal, it releases neurotransmitters from vesicles. These diffuse across the synapse to the postsynaptic receptor site.
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excitation and inhibition
neurotransmitters that are excitated have a +ve charge so are more likely to fire, vice versa.(summation)
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Behaviourist approach


A way of explaining behaviour in terms of what is observable in terms of learning.

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Classical conditioning


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Operant conditioning


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social learning theory


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