Approaches

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Give one strength of the behaviourist approach.
It is proven that we learn from our environment through different cultures etc.
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Give one weakness of the behaviourist approach.
We learn before birth so we are not born a blank slate. Genses do have an effect on our behaviour.
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What is an assumption?
A basic, underlying idea that everyone in the approach believes.
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What is introspection?
The examination of ones own thoughts and feelings. It is a self examination process.
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Wundt's research was...?
Unscientific.
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Give a strength of Wundt's research.
Some techniques used were scientific, for example the same standardised instructions were used.
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Give a weakness of Wundt's research.
His reports could not be replicated and so the concept was unreliable.
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What happened in the 17th - 19th century?
Experimental psychology - the development od psychology through philosophy.
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What happened in 1879?
The first experimental lab opened in Germany thanks to Wundt - the emergence of psychology as a discipline in its own right.
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What happened in the 1900's?
Psychodynamic approach - Freud focuses on the role of the unconcious mind.
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What happened in 1913?
Behaviourist approach - Skinner and Watson believed that psychology should be restricted to what can be observed and measured.
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What happened in the 1950's?
Humanist approach - Rogers and Maslow believed that human behaviour was not determined by the individual.
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What happened in the 1960's?
Cognitive approach - using the computer to explain the human mind, focussing on mental processes AND SLT - Bandura focused on the cognitive factors involved in learning and the role of the environment.
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What happened in the 1980's?
Biological approach - advances in technology allow increased understanding of the brain and biological processes.
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What happened at the end of the 20th century?
Cognitive neuroscience - brings together cognitive and biological approaches. Focus on computer models and biological structures that influence mental states.
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Give one point 'for' psychology as a science.
Psychology involves statistical analysis.
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Give one point 'against' psychology as a science.
There is qualitative data involved, which cannot be measured.
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What is the unconditioned stimulus in Pavlov's theory of classical conditioning?
Food
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What is the unconditioned response in Pavlov's theory of classical conditioning?
Salivation.
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What is the neutral stimulus in Pavlov's theory of classical conditioning?
The bell (before conditioning has taken place).
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What response does the neutral stimulus give?
No response.
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During classical conditioning, you pair the neutral stimulus with what to get the unconditioned response?
Unconditioned stimulus.
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After classical conditioning, what is the conditioned stimulus in Pavlov's theory of classical conditioning?
The ringing of the bell.
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What is the conditioned response after conditioning has taken place?
Salivation.
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The conditioned response is usually the same as...?
The unconditioned response.
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Define conditioned stimulus.
In classical conditioning, the neutral stimulus becomes the conditioned stimulus after the neutral stimulus has been paired with the unconditioned stimulus .
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Define spontaneous recovery.
The re-appearance of a conditioned stimulus that had been extinguished. The recovery can occur after a period of non exposure to the conditioned stimulus.
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Define stimulus generalisation.
When something responds to a new stimulus in the same way as a previouslt encountered stimulus, based on the similarity of the stimuli and the history of reinforcement.
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Define stimulus reinforcement.
This is when we learn to respond only to the original stimulus, and not to other stimuli.
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Define extinction.
This refers to the reduction of some responses that the organism previously produced. In classical conditioning, this would be when the conditioned stimulus no longer produced the conditioned response.
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What is operant conditioning?
Forming an association between a behaviour and a consequence. It is a type of learning in which future behaviour is determined by the consequences of past behaviour.
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What is primary reinforcement?
When the reward is a basic need e.g. food or water.
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What is secondary reinforcement?
When the reward can satisfy a basic need, but is not a basic need itself e.g. money
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What is positive reinforcement?
When something good arrives.
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What in negative reinforcement?
When something bad is taken away.
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What is punishment?
The arrival of something bad.
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Behaviour is strengthed when...?
You are rewarded for it, as it is more likely to happen again.
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Behaviour is weakened when...?
You are punished for it, as you will probably stop doing something.
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What does a skinner box include?
A speaker, signal lights, a lever, a tube to a food dispenser and an electrical grid for a floor.
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Give an example of punishment within the skinner box.
Receving an elecrtic shock when the rat presses the lever. This would result in the number of presses decreasing.
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Give an example of positive reinforcement in the skinner box.
The rat receives a food pellet when they press the lever. This would result in the number of presses increasing.
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Give an example of negative reinforcement within the skinner box.
The rat receives a constant electric shock, but when the rat presses the lever, the intensity decreases. This would result in the number of presses increasing.
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Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which...
Future behaviour is determined by the consequences of previous behaviour.
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Give a claim of classical conditioning.
This type of conditioning considers the learning of involuntary behaviour such as a dog salivating, blinking when someone blows near your eye.
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Give a component of classical conditioning.
The key stimuli are called: neautral stimulus, unconditioned stimulus and conditioned stimulus.
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Give a claim of operant conditioning.
This type of conditioning considers the learning of voluntary behaviour.
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Give a component of operant conditioning.
Skinner proposed that consequences of a behaviour could either strength or weaken a response.
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Give a supporting study of the Behaviourist approach.
Skinner.
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Describe how Skinners study supports the Behaviourist approach.
He found that rats increased the frequency with which they pressed the lever when they were rewarded with food. This supports the theory as the rat learnt to associate the behaviour of pressing the lever with receiving a reward.
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Give a 'GRAVE' criticism of Skinners study in relation to SODG.
He uses animals to observe behaviour, and the credibility of using animals can be criticised as they still have many differences to humans,
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Give an opposing study of the behaviourist approach.
Cook and Mineka.
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How does Cook and Mineka's study oppose the behaviourist approach.
Automatically feared snakes and crocdiles, but did not fear rabbits and flowers, even though they have never been exposed to them. This shows that conditioning is more likely to have an evolutionary basis.
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Give a GRAVE criticism of Cook and Mineka's study.
This cannot account for why people fear strange objects such as clowns or numbers.
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Give a general strength of the Behaviourist approach.
The approach focuses on measuring behaviour that is observable wthin highly controlled environments. The approach emphasises the importance of objectivity and replicability, therefore giving the approach more scientific credibility.
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Give a general weakness of the Behaviourist approach.
The approach argues that all behaviour is determined by past experienes through the way we have been conditioned. It ignores any influence on how free will may play a role in behaviour.
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Give an assumption of SLT.
People learn through observation and imitation of others within a social context.
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Give a general strength of the social learning theory approach.
The approach takes thought process into acount and the role they play in deciding whether to imitate behaviour or not.
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Give a general weakness of the social learning theory approach.
A variety of research methods are used, meaning that the approach could be unscientific.
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Define modelling in regards to observational learning.
Where a behaviour is observed then imitated. Someone who is influential to an individual is referred to as a model.
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Define identification in regards to observational learning.
When an individual is influenced by another because they have similar traits or they wish to be like them.
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Define imitation in regards to observational learning.
the behaviour of the role model is observed and copied. We use this term instead of copied because the behaviour is not exactly the same.
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What are the four criteria that must be met for social learning to occur?
Attention (paid to the role model), Retention (the capacity at which we remember the behaviour) Reproduction (reproducing the behaviour - it must be achievable) Motivation - (a reward we anticipate we will receive if the behaviour is reproduced)
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Define vicarious learning.
The idea that we learn from others' mistakes or successes.
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Define vicarious reinforcement.
Where the observer sees the model receiving a reinforcer for their behaviour. This makes the behaviour more likely to happen again.
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Define vicarious punishment.
Where the observer sees the model receive a punishment for their actions.
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Define vicarious extinction.
When people stop doing something because they have seen that people are not rewarded for doing it.
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Give a supporting study of the Social Learning theory.
Bandura, Ross and Ross.
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Describe Bandura, Ross and Ross' study as a supporting study of the social learning theory.
They found that boys were more aggressive if they had a male role model, and girls were more verbally aggressive if their model was female. This shows support because there is a behavioural effect on behaviour from observing aggressive behaviour.
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Give an opposing study of the social learning theory.
Cumberbatch.
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Describe Cumberbatch's study as a opposing study of the social learning theory.
He found that children ho had not played with a bobo doll before were five times more likely to imitate the aggressive behaviour, suggesting that familiarity with a situation may change the extent to which behaviour is imitated.
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Give four similarities between the brain and a computer.
They both process information, input data, output data and both have a memory.
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Give two differences of the brain and a computer.
Computers are metallic/plastic whereas brains are organic, and brains have an unlimited memory wheras a computer has a limited memory.
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Input comes from...
The environment via the sense and is encoded by the individual.
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Once information is encoded, informaton can be...
Processed.
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What is output according the the information processing model?
The behavioural response.
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What does the information processing model demonstrate?
The 3 stages of thought processing.
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What are schemas?
A cognitive representation of our ideas about a person or situation.
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How are schemas formed?
Through experience.
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What do schemas enable us to do? Why is this useful?
Process lots of information quickly and this is useful as a mental shortcut because it prevents us from being overwhelmed by environmental stimuli.
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What are the two types of brain imaging techniques?
MRI and PET.
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Card 2

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Give one weakness of the behaviourist approach.

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We learn before birth so we are not born a blank slate. Genses do have an effect on our behaviour.

Card 3

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What is an assumption?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is introspection?

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Card 5

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Wundt's research was...?

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