• Created by: Olivia
  • Created on: 27-02-19 17:20
Behaviourist approach assumptions
only interested behaviour that can be observed+ measured.Early behaviourists like Watson rejected introspection as involved too many concepts that vague+ difficult measure so relied on lab experiments.they also suggested learning basic same in all
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assumptions part2
species so in research animals can be replace humans
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one form of learning - pavlov - classical conditioning
learning through association. dogs could be conditioned salivate to bell if sound repeatedly presented at same time as given food- learned associate bell with food+ would salivate when just heard bell.neautral stimulus - bell, condtioned responde
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2nd form of learning - skinner - operant conditioning
skinner suggested learning is active process where operate on environment.positive reinforcement - receiving reward when behaviour performed, negative reinforcement- avoidance of something unpleasant, punishment- unpleasant consequence of behaviour.
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EVALUATION- scientific credability
behaviourism able bring language+ methods natural sciences into psych by focusing on measurement observable behaviour withing high control lab settings.- so influential in development in psych as scientific discipline
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EVALUATION- real life application
principles conditioning applied many real life- operant- basis of token economy systems used successfully institutions+ classical applied treatment of phobias- advantage requiring less effort from patient cus dont have think bout problem-lack insight
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EVALUATION- ethical issues + practical issues in animal experiments
skinner box- rat - operant conditioning.the animals were exposed stressful conditions, which may have affected how they reacted to the experimental situation
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Social Learning Theory- assumptions
Bandura agreed with behaviourists that much of our behaviour is learned from experience.however his SLT proposed learning through observation+imitation of others in social context.
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SLT- vicarious reinforcement
indirect learning take place-observers behaviour of others.may imitate but in general imitates if behaviour rewarded than punished . Observes importly consequences of behaviour
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SLT- role of mediational process
focuses on how mental(cognitive) factors r involved in learning.4 identified by bandure-attention,extent notice behaviour,retention-how well rememb,motor reproduction-ability perform,motivation-often if was rewared or punished
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people more likely imitate people they identify with, role models - called modelling person becomes model if seen possess similar charcateristics to observor + attractive+ high status. may not be present- media
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SLT- evaluation- importance cognitive factors in learning
classical or operant cant offer adequate account of learning on own.humans+many animals store info bout behaviour + use make judgements bout when appropiate perform.- slt provides more comprehensive explan of human learning by recognising role mediat
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SLT- evaluation-over reliance on evidence lab studies
many banduras ideas developed through observation young childrens behaviour in lab.- can respond demand characteristics - bobo doll- main purpose strike it- children behaving in way expected - although may tell little bout how children learn aggressi
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SLT- evaluation- understimates influence of biological factors
bandura makes little refrence biological finding in bobo doll- boys often more aggressive regardless experimental situation- may be explained hormonal factors-diff levels testostorone - this imporant influence on behaviour not accounted
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contrast to behaviourist approachm cognitive argues internal mental processes can+should study scientifically. investigated what ignored behaviours- memory,perception+thinking- cant be observed so study them indirectly by making inferences
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COGNITIVE APPROACH-theoretical+computer models
theoretical model-info processing approach,suggests info flows through cognitive system in stages- input,storage+retrieval. based on way computers function but computer model would mean programming computer see if produce similar output.
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COGNITIVE APPROACH- theoretical+ computer model- if they do
can suggest that similar process going on in human mind - proved useful in development of thinking machines.
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COGNITIVE APPROACH- role of schema
schema- packages of ideas+ info developed through experience. act as mental framework for intepretation of incoming info received by cognitive syste, - eg schema of chair- sit on it.babies born with motor schema- older schema more
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COGNITIVE APPROACH- role of schema
more detailed. they enable us process lots of info quickly + useful as mental short cut that prevents from being overwhelmed by enivornmental stimuli.
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COGNITIVE APPROACH- emergence of cognitive neuroscience
scientific study of influence of brain structures on mental processes. mapping brain areas to specific cognitive functions.frontal lobe- brocas area- damage to it can impair speech production.FMRI +PET scans-able observe+ describe neurological bais
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emergence of cognitive neuroscience - carry on
of mental processes.- tuvling et al able show diff types LTM may be located diff sides pre-frontal cortex +overal charge of working memory - central executive- thought reside in similar area
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emergence of cognitive neuroscience- scanning techniques
proved useful in establishing neurological basis of some mental disorders. brain scanning to study impact of brain structures on cognitive processes
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COGNITIVE APPROACH- evaluation-scientific + objective methods.
highly controlled+rigorous methods of study in order enable researchers to infer cognitive processes at work.use of lab experi to produce reliable, objective data.+ emergence cogntive neuro- biology+cogntive come of mindscientificbasis
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COGNITIVE APPROACH-evaluation-machine reductionism
computer anology has been criticised by many.machine reductionism ignores influence of human emotion+motivation on cognitive system + how may affect ability process info-eg found human mem may affected by influence anxiety
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COGNITIVE APPROACH- evaulation - real life application
able infer mental processes from behaviour observed in research- as consequence cognitive psych ocassonaly suffers from being too abstract+theoretical+experimental studies often artificial stimuli - lack external validity
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emergence of cognitive approach- evaluation- real life application
cognitive approach applied wide range of practical cognivite psych made important contribution in artifical intelligence + development thinking machines- robots - may revolutionise how we live in future
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BIOLOGICAL APPROACH- assumptions- contrast to cognitive that sees mental processes of mind separate from physical brain
suggests that everything psychological at first is biological so to fully understand human behaviour have to look at biological structure + processes within body eg genes . brain structure can explaing our thoughts+behaviour. the mindlivesinthebrain
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BIOLOGICAL APPROACH- genetic basis of behaviour
twins studies used determine likelihood that certain traits have genetic basis by comparing concordance rate.if monozygotic found higher concor rates than dizgotic suggests for eg music ability- suggest genetic share 100% DZ share 50% genes
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BIOLOGICAL APPROACH- Genotype and phenotype
Genotype-is actual genetic make up. Phenotype is way that genes are expressed through physical,behavioural+psychological charcateristics.geno- the way expressed(phenotype) influneced enviornmental factors+
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BIOLOGICAL APPROACH- evolution+ behaviour
charles Darwin- theory of natural selection- any genetically determined behaviour that enhances individuals survival will continue in future generations. in nature takes place naturally but if doesnt reproduce the genes wont pass on which give advan
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BIOLOGICAL APPROACH- evaluation-scientific methods of investigation
the approach makes use of a range of precise+highly scientific methods which include scanning technqiues like FMRI, EGGS, family+twin studies+drug trials.advance in techno-possible accurate measure bio+neaural processes in ways not bias-reliable data
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BIOLOGICAL APPROACH- real life application
increased understanding of biochemical processes in brain has led to development of psychoactive drugs that treat serious mental health illnesses-eg depression.although not effective for all -have revolutionised treatments for many.
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BIOLOGICAL APPROACH- real life application- why strength
it means sufferers are able to manage their condition+ live a relatively normal life, rather than remain in hospital
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BIOLOGICAL APPROACH- evaluation-causal conclusions- limitation cus bio approach is claiming have discovered causes where only an association exists
approach offers explanation for mental illnesses in terms action of neurotransmitters in brain.evidence for this comes from studies that show a particular drug reduces symptoms of mental disorder + so assumed neurochemical in drug causes disorder.
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The Nervous System
specialised network of cells in human body+primary internal communication system. 2 main functions-collect,process+respond info in environ+to co-ordinate working of diff organs+cells.divided 2 sub systems-central nervous system+peripheral nervous sys
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Central Nervous System
made up of brain+spinal cord.brain centre of conscious awarness.brains outer layer-cerebral cortex is what distinguishes our higher mental functions from animals.brain is devided into 2 hemispheres. spinal cord is extension of brain-responsible
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central nervous system - spinal cord responsibility
responsible for reflex actions such as pulling your hand away from a hot plate . passes messages from to + from brain+connects nerves to PNS
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Peripheral nervous system
transmitts messages via mills neurons to+from CNS. its further subdivided-Autonomic NS-governs vital functions in body-egheart rate,Somatic NS-controls muscle movement+receives info from sensory receptors
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THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM- glands+hormones. endcorine Sys works alongside NS to control vital functions in body.but acts more slowly
various glands in body produce hormones.horm are secreted into bloodstrea+affect any cells in body that has receptor for that particular hormone.most hormones affect cells in several organs or throughout entire body leading to powerful responses
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what is the major gland
pituitary gland located in brain.often called master gland cus controls release of hormones from all other endocrine glands in body.hypothalamus- brain, thyroid+parathyroid neck,adrenals+pancreas -stomach,ovaries+testes
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ENDOCRINE+ ANS working together- fight or flight
stress hormone adrenaline is released from the adrenal medulla into bloodstream.adrenaline triggers physiological changes in body eg-increased heart rate+which creates physiological arousal necessary for fight or flight response
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what happens once threat passed
parasympathetic NS returns the body to its resting state- its actions are antagonistic to sympathetic syste. para sys acts as 'break' + reduces activity of body that were increased - rest+digest response
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structure+ function of neurons
100 billion neurons in humans NS,80% located in brain. by transmitting signals electricaly+chemically - provide nervous systems
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Types of neurons
sensory neuron-carry messages from PNS to CNS. have long dentrites+short axons,relay neurons-connect sensory neurons to motor+other relay neuron. short dentrites+axons,motor neurons-connect CNS to effectors-muscles+glands.short dentrites+long axons
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Structure of neuron
neurons vary in size.the cell body includes nucleus which contains genetic material of cell.dendrites carry nurve impulses from neighbouring neurons towards cell body.axon carries impulses away from cell body down length of neuron.
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structure of neuron
axon covered in fatty layer myelin shaeth that protects axon+speeds up electrical transmission.Myelin is segmented by gaps called nodes of ranvier-speed up transmission by forcing it jump across gaps.end of axon
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at end of axon - terminal buttons
communicate with next neuron in the chain across a gap known as the synapse
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electrical transmission - firing of neuron
when neuron resting state inside of the cell is negatively charged compared to outside.when neuron activated by stimulus, inside of cell becomes + charged for split second causing an action potential to occur- creates electrical impulset that travels
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where does it travel
down the axon towards the end of the neuron
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synaptic transmission-chemical transmission-synapse
neurons communicate within groups know-neural networks . each euron separated from next by synapse. signals between neurons r transmitted chemically across synpase.when electrical impul reaches end neuron-presypnatic terminal triggers release neurotr
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chemicals that diffuse across synpase to next neuron in chain.once crosses the gap,taken up by postsypantic receptor site- here chemical message converted back into electrical impulse+ process transmission begins again.
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excitatory or inhibitory effect on neighbouring neuron. neurotransmitter seretoning causes inhibition in receiving neuron,resulting in more negatively charged+less likely fire.contrast,adrenaline causes excitation by increasing + charge + likely fire
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Q if postsypnatic neuron fires is decided by this process.action potential of postsypnatic neuron is only triggered if sum of excitatory+inhibitory signals reaches threshold
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PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH-role of unconscious
Freud suggested that part of mind we know about but unaware of - unconscious mind. most of mind made up of this- vast storehouse of biological drives+instics that has influence on behaviour+personality.
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role of unconscious- what does it also contain
threatening+disturbing memories that have been repressed or locked away+forgotten - can be accessed through during dreams or through 'slips of the tongue' - eg calling teacher mum. under -preconscious-contains thoughts+mems which not in conscious
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awarness but can acess if desired
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PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH-structure of personality
The ID-gets what it wants,only ID is present at birth,throughout life-ID selfish+demands gratification of its needs.The ego,develops age 2,role to reduce conflict between demands ID+supergo by defence mechanisms, supergo-form at end of phallic stage
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continue supergo
our sense of right+ wrong
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COGNITIVE APPROACH- defence mechanisms
repression-forcing distressing mem out of conscious mind,denial-refusing acknowledge some aspect reality,displacement-transferring distress emotion onto something else
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PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH- psychosexual stages
oral-0-1years,focus of pleasure is the mouth,oral fixation-smoking,biting nails,sarcastic,critical. Anal,1-3 years,focus of pleasure is anus. pleasure from witholding+expelling faeces, anal retentive-perfectionist,obsessive,anal expulsive-thougtless
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psychosexual stages
+ messy,Phallic-3-5y,focus of pleasure genital area,experiences oedius or electra complex,phallic personality-reckless,narcassict,latency-earlier conflicts r repressed,genital-sexual desires become conscious+puberty,conse-difficulty forming -I- relat
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Oedius complex
little bous develop feelings towards mother+murderous hatred for the father.fearing father will castrate them, boys repress their feelings + identify with father,taking on his gender role+moral values
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Electra complex
girls experience penis envy-they desire their father + hate mother , girls thought to give up the desire over time+replace with desire for a baby+ identifying with mother in process
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PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH-evaluation-explanatory power
freuds theory has had huge influence on psych+western contemporary thought. has been used explain abnormal behaviour,personality+moral development+gender+significant in drawing attention to experiences in childhoos-eg-relationship w parent
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PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH-evaluation-case study method
freuds theory based on study of single individuals who were often in therapy.critics suggested not possible make universal claims based on small number individuals who were psychologically comparsion other approaches-lack scientificrigour
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PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH-evaluation-doesnt meet scientific criterion of falsification
philospher of science-Popper argued it doesnt meet this as many freuds concepts such as ID+oedius complex are said occur at an unconscious level making them difficult to test.According Popper this makes is a 'fake science'
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humanistic claim humans are self determing+have free will.we are active agents who have ability determine our own development - for this reason Rogers+Maslow reject scientific models that attempt establish general principles.
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HUMANISITC PSYCHOLOGY- self actualisation
is the uppermost level of Maslows hierchy.all four lower levels must be met before individual can work towards self actualisation.- become fulfilled,satisifed+goal orientated-not everyone will manage this
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HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY-the self,congruence+conditions of worth
Rogers argued for personal growth be achieved an indiviudals self(way they see themselves) has be same or have congruence with ideal self(who wish to be)if too big gap between the 2 - self actualisation not possible
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Rogers developed client centred therapy to help cope with problems of everyday living. he claimed many issues we experience as adults like low self esteem-result due childhood + can be often explained lack of unconditional positive regard fromparents
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HUMANISITIC PSYCH-unconditional positive regard
parent who set boundaries eg - 'i will only love you if...'- psychological problems for child in future. Rogers saw for effective therapy providing clients with unconditonal positive regard that they failed receive as children
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HUMANISTIC PSYCH- evaluation-not reductionist
humanists reject breaking behaviour+experience into smaller components.contrasting to cogntivie,behaviourist+freud, humanisitic advocate holism- whole person.may have more validity as considers meaningful behaviour within real life context
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HUMANISITIC PSYCH- evaluation-limited application
The approach has limited impact within disciple of psych as a whole. may be due to it lacking a sound evidence base + due fact approach has been described as a loose set of absract concepts
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HUMANISITIC PSYCH- evaluation-positive approach
praised for 'bringing the person back into psychology'+ promoting positive image of human condition.- freud saw human beings as slaves to their past.humanistic psych offers optimistic alternatives- sees all as good
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COMPARISON OF APPROACHES-views on development
child development-psychodynamic presents most coherant theory.stage theories within cognitive have contributed understanding child development-schemas as get older.biological appr-genetically determined changes child pschological status influence
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COMPARISON- views on development
psychological+behaviour charcterisitics.humanisitic see development of self as ongoing throught life. behaviourists+ SLT dont offer stage theories of development but instead see learning as continouse
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behaviourists see babies as 'blank slate' at birth+ suggest all behaviour comes through learned associations- SLT- imitation.Bio approach argues behaviour is result genetic blueprint we inherit from parents.
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freud thought much of behaviour driven by biological drives+instincts +also saw relationships w parents as playing fundamenal role in future development-similarly-humanistic,regard friends,parents+wider society as having critical impacton selfconcept
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nature vs nurture-cognitive
recognise many of our info processing abilities +schemas are inborn+would also point to fact that these r constantly refined through experience.
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COMPARISON OF APPROACHES-reductionism. humanisitc-holisitc
behaviourism-reductionist-breaks up complex behaviour into stimulus-response units for ease of testing in lab.biological-reductionist.freud reduces much of behaviour to sexual desires+biological instincs.cognitive approach-machine reductionism.
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COMPARISON OF APPROACHES-determinism-means all behaviour has internal or external ause+so is predictable
behaviours-external influences-environment.biological-advocates genetic determinism-inborn influences.freud-psych determinism-cant know unconscious forces.cognitive suggests we r choosers of own behaviours but limits what we know+experienced.
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COMPARSION- determinism-SLT+humanisitic
reciprocal determinism-idea as influenced by environment+ we also some influence as choose which behaviours perform.Humanistic- free will
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COMPARISON-explanation+treatment of abnormal/atypical behaviour-behaviourists
behaviourist-sees abnormality arising from maladaptive or faulty learning.behaviour theraphies such as systematic desensistation have been applied sucessfully to treamtment of phobias.
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has little to treatments but principles of modelling+observational learning have been used explain negative behaviours such as aggression may be learned through influence dysfunctional role models
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freud saw anxiety disorders as emerging from unconscious conflict,childhood trauma+overuse defence mechanism. psychoanalysis some success as therapy but not appropiate for everyone as requires input from patient in terms of time +ability talk emotion
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cognitive therapy in treatment eg depression aims identify+eradicate faulty thinking which assumed root of maladaptive behaviour
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humanistic counselling -rogers closing gap between self concept+ ideal self will stimulate personal growth
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biological -treatment
revolutionalised treatment of mental disorders through development of drug therapy hich regulates hemical imbalances in the brain
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assumptions part2


species so in research animals can be replace humans

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one form of learning - pavlov - classical conditioning


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2nd form of learning - skinner - operant conditioning


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EVALUATION- scientific credability


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