approaches

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  • Created by: Zayn101
  • Created on: 04-05-16 22:54
ACTH
Hormone released by the pituitary gland. Stimulates the adrenal glands to release adrenaline into the bloodstream
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Action potential
A spike in electric charge in an axon caused by sodium ions crossing the cell membrane.
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Adrenal glands
Small glands on top of each kidney that produce hormones such as adrenaline and cortisol
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Adrenaline
Key hormone in the stress response that is produced by the adrenal glands and increases heart rate, breathing rate etc.
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Autonomic nervous system
Sub-division of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary responses like breathing and heart rate
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Axon
A single long slender fiber that carries the nerve impulse away from the cell body
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Axon terminal
The very end of the axon that contains neurotransmitters and makes synaptic contact with the next neuron in the chain
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Central nervous system
Sub-system of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord
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Classical conditioning
Learning through association when two stimuli are repeatedly paired together
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Cognitive neuroscience
An academic field that studies the influence of brain structures on mental processes using techniques such as brain scans
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Computer models
Software simulations of internal mental processes that are created in collaboration with computer scientists.
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Concordance rate
The extent to which both twins share the same characteristic
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Dendrites
Root like structures protruding from the cell body that receive signals from other neurons
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DZ twins
Non-identical twins who share 50% of their genes
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Endocrine system
A collection of organs that secrete hormones into the blood stream
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Excitation
Occurs when a link between a neurotransmitter and receptor site in a synapse makes the receptor site’s cell more likely to act
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Fight or flight response
The way an animal (including humans) responds to stress as it becomes physiologically aroused to fight an aggressor or to run away
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Genotype
A person's unique genetic make-up that is coded in their chromosomes and fixed at conception
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Hypothalamus
Part of the brain that links the nervous system to the endocrine system. Releases hormones that stimulate the pituitary gland
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Identification
Associating with a role model's and adopting their behaviour because you want to be like them
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Imitation
Copying or reproducing behaviour that has been learned through observation
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Inference
Process of drawing conclusions about general patterns of behaviour
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Inhibition
occurs when a link between a neurotransmitter and receptor site in a synapse makes the receptor site’s cell less likely to act.
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Introspection
Observing and examining your own conscious thoughts and emotions
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Modelling
Imitating a role model or producing a specific behaviour that may then be imitated by the observer
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Motor neuron
Carries signals from the central nervous system to internal organs and muscles
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Myelin sheath
A fatty layer that protects the exon and speeds up the electrical transmission of the nerve impulse
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MZ twins
Identical twins who share 100% of their genes
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Natural selection
The way that any genetically determined behaviour that enhances the ability to survive and reproduce will continue in future generations
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Negative reinforcement
Avoiding or removing something unpleasant when a behaviour is performed that increases the chance tha the behaviour is repeated
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Nervous system
Bodily system consisting of central nervous system and peripheral nervous system that provides rapid responses to stimuli
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Neurotransmitter
Chemicals that transfer signals from one neuron to another across the synapses that lie between them
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Objective
Not influenced by private emotions, perceptions, or biases
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Operant conditioning
Learning through reinforcement where behaviour is shaped and maintained by its consequences
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Parasympathetic nervous system
Sub-division of the autonomic nervous system that controls the 'rest and digest' response
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Peripheral nervous system
Sub-system of the nervous system that transmits messages from the body to the central nervous system and back again
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Phenotype
The expression of a person's genetic make-up that can be influenced by the environment
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Pituitary gland
The 'master gland' of the endocrine system which is located in the brain and controls the release of hormones from other glands
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Positive reinforcement
Receiving something pleasant when a behaviour is performed that increases the chance the behaviour is repeated
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Postsynaptic Receptor sites
In the dendrites of the receiving neuron, they take up the neurotransmitter once it has crossed the synaptic gap
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Reciprocal determinism
The way a person is influenced by their environment but also influences their environment
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Relay neuron
Carries signals between sensory and motor neurons or connect to other relay neurons within the central nervous system
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Schemas
Mental frameworks of information that we use to organise past experience and to interpret and respond to new situations.
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Sensory neuron
Carries signals from the senses to the central nervous system
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Social learning theory
The view that people learn through observing others
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Somatic nervous system
Sub-division of the peripheral nervous system that controls muscle movement and receives information from sensory receptors
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Subjective
Affected by personal feelings, prejudices and interpretations
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Sympathetic nervous system
Sub-division of the autonomic nervous system that controls the 'fight or flight' response
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Synapse
The tiny gap between one neuron and the next
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Synaptic transmission
The way that signals between neurons are transmitted chemically across the synaptic gap
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Theoretical models
Diagrammatic representations of the steps involved in internal mental processes, e.g. the information-processing model.
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Vicarious reinforcement
Observing someone else being reinforced for a behaviour and the consequences of their actions
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A spike in electric charge in an axon caused by sodium ions crossing the cell membrane.

Back

Action potential

Card 3

Front

Small glands on top of each kidney that produce hormones such as adrenaline and cortisol

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Key hormone in the stress response that is produced by the adrenal glands and increases heart rate, breathing rate etc.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Sub-division of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary responses like breathing and heart rate

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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