Approaches

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psychology
the scientific study of the human mind and its functions, especially those affecting behaviour in a given context
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science
aiming to discover general laws through systematic and objective investigation
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introspection
first systematic experimental attempt to study mind by breaking up conscious awareness into basic structures of thoughts, images and sensations
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behaviourist approach
a way of explaining behaviour through what is observable and in terms of learning
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classical conditioning
learning by association. UCS and NS eventually produce same response.
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operant conditioning
learning by consequence. positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement or punishment
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reinforcement
consequence of behaviour that increases likelihood of behaviour being repeated
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social learning theory
combines learning theory with cognitive factors, includes both direct and indirect reinforcement
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imitation
copying behaviour of others
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identification
associating oneself with a role model and wanting to be similar to aforementioned
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modelling
imitating behaviour of role model
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vicarious reinforcement
occurs through observing someone else being reinforced
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mediational processes
cognitive factors that influence learning and come between stimulus and response
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cognitive approach
how mental processes affect behaviour
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internal mental processes
private operations of the mind such as perception and attention that mediate between stimulus and response
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schema
mental framework of beliefs and expectations that influence cognitive processing
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inference
the process whereby cognitive psychologists draw concludsions about the way mental processes operate on the basis of observed behaviour
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cognitive neuroscience
scientific study of biological structures that underpin cognitive processes
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biological approach
emphasises the role of physical processes eg genetics
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genes
DNA which codes physical factors of an organism
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biological structure
arrangement of parts to form an organ, system or living thing
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neurochemistry
chemicals in the brain that regulate psychological functioning
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genotype
particular set of genes that one possesses
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phenotype
characteristics determined by genes and environment
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evolution
changes in inherited characteristics in a biological population over generations
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nervous system parts
CNS and PNS
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CNS
brain and spinal chord, decision maker
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PNS
sends info to CNS from external environment and CNS to muscles and glands in body
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somatic nervous system
transmits from receptor cells to CNS and receives info from CNS to muscles
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autonomic nervous system
transmits info to and from internal bodily organs
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neuron
basic building block of NS, nerve cells that process and transmit messages through electrical and chemical signals
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sensory neurons
PNS -> CNS
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relay neurons
connect sensory to motor
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motor neurons
connect CNS to effectors
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Card 2

Front

aiming to discover general laws through systematic and objective investigation

Back

science

Card 3

Front

first systematic experimental attempt to study mind by breaking up conscious awareness into basic structures of thoughts, images and sensations

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

a way of explaining behaviour through what is observable and in terms of learning

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

learning by association. UCS and NS eventually produce same response.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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