Approaches

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What is the Definition of Psychology?
The scientfic study of the human mind and its functions, especially those functions affecting behaviour in given context.
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What is Introspection?
The first systematic experimental attempt to study the mind by breaking up conscious awareness into basic structures of thoughts, images and sensations.
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Explain Wundt and Introspection?
The first ever lab dedicated to psychological enquiry was opened by Wundt, in Germany in 1879. Introspection - involved Wunt and his co-workers recording their own conscious thoughts, with the aim of breaking these down into their constituent parts.
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What is the Behavourist Approach?
A way of explaining behaviour in terms of what is observable and in terms of learning.
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What is Classical Conditioning?
Learning by association.
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What is Operant Conditioning?
Leading where behaviour is shaped and maintained by its consequences.
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What is Reinforcement?
A consequence of behaviour that increases the likelihood of that behaviour being repeated. Can be positive or negative.
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What is the Assumption of the Behaviourist Approach?
It is only interested in studying behaviour tha can be observed and measured. It is not concerned with investigating mental processes of the mind.
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What did John B. Watson say about introspection?
That it was too vague and difficult to measure.
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Explain Pavlov's Investigation on Classical Conditioning?
Revealed that dogs could salivate to the sound of a bell, if that sound was repeatidly presented at the same time as they were given food.
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Explain Skinner's Investigation on Operant Conditioning?
Suggested that learning is an active process whereby humans and animals operate in their environment. Every time the rat activated a lever, it was rewarded with a foot pellet.
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What is Positive Reinforcement?
Receiving an award when a certain behaviour is performed.
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What is Negative Reinforcement?
Occurs when somebody avoids something unpleasant - when a student hands in an esaay so they dont get told off.
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What is Punishment?
An unpleasant consequence of behaviour - being shouted at by the teacher for talking during a lesson.
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Name an Advantage of the Behaviourist Approach?
It has scientific credability - it was observed in highly controlled lab settings, which emphasises the importance of objectivity and replication. It has real life application - applied to real world behaviours.
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Name a disadvantage of the Behaviourist Approach?
It has a mechanistic view of behaviour, presents animals and humans as machine like responders.
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What is Social Learning Theory?
A way of explaining behaviour that includes both direct and indirect reinforcement, combining learning theory with the role of cognitive factors.
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What is Imitation?
Copying the behaviour of others.
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What are the Asssumptions of the Social Learning Theory Approach?
Bandura agreed with the behavourists that much of our behaviour is learned from experience, however SLT proposed a different way in the way that people learn through observation and imitation.
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What is Social Learning Theory often described as?
The bridge between traditional learning theory and the Cognitive Approach.
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Bandura proposed that there were 4 mediational processes, what are they?
1. Attention - the extent to which we notice behaviours. 2. Retention - how well the behaviour is remembered. 3 - Motor Reproduction - the ability of the observer to perform the behaviour. 4. Motivation - the will to perform the behaviour.
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Explain Bandura Et Al (1961) study?
Bandura recorded the behaviour of young children who watched an adult behave in an aggressive way towards a Bobo Doll. The adult hit the doll with a hammer and shouted abuse at it.
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What were the findings of Bandura Et Al (1961) study?
When the children were later observed playing with a Bobo Doll, they behaved much more aggressively towards the doll and the other toys than those who has observed a non-aggressive adult.
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Name an Advantage of the Social Learning Theory Approach?
It is an accurate way of explaining how behaviour is learned and easy to understand,
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Name a Disadvantage of the Social Learning Theory Approach?
Neither OC or CC offer an adequate account of learning on their own. Lab settings - P's may have responded to demand characteristics. Gives little references to the impact on biological factors e.g hormones.
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What is Introspection?

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The first systematic experimental attempt to study the mind by breaking up conscious awareness into basic structures of thoughts, images and sensations.

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Explain Wundt and Introspection?

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Card 4

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What is the Behavourist Approach?

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What is Classical Conditioning?

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