Applied Psychology - Intelligence in Child Development

What is assortative mating?
The theory that individuals with similar genes or observable characteristics mate with one another.
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What is GE interaction?
When specific environments activate particular genes.
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What is GE correlation?
The idea that parents pass on not only their genes but also their environment.
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What is cultural transmission?
The way a particular group/culture tend to pass on learnt information.
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What is phenotypic assortment?
Assortative mating occurs because individuals choose one another due to their similar traits.
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What is social homogamy?
Because people with similar characteristics are clustered together in the same environment, they are more likely to choose one another.
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What key psychologists have done research into Intelligence?
Van Leeuwen, Haier, Van Goozen, Scarr and Weinberg.
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What are the basics of Van Leeuwen's study?
A = To investigate the extent to which intelligence is caused by biological/environmental factors. M = Parents, identical twins and siblings completed a RPM test that was then interpreted through Rasch model.
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What do we find in Van Leeuwen's study?
No significant sex differences. Cultural transmission does not have an influence on variance IQ. Spousal correlation for IQ were moderately high; phenotypic assortment more likely than social homogamy. GE interaction occurs with children with low IQ.
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What do we find in Haier's study?
Sex differences. Grey matter is used for high-order thinking. Men have more grey matter in frontal/parietal lobes = motor-skills/reasoning. Women have more grey matter in frontal lobe = speech/language.
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What do we find in Van Goozen's study?
Sex differences. FTM trans who were given hormonal treatment were better at visual-spatial and worse at verbal fluency compared to before transition. Vice versa is true for MTF trans.
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What do we find in Scarr and Weinberg's study?
Twins/adoption studies. Stronger correlations found between parents and their biological children, opposed to their adopted children. Suggests genetic factors have greater influence on intelligence than environmental factors.
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What debates are linked to the intelligence topic?
Nature/Nurture. Psych as a science. Freewill/Determinism. Usefulness.
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How did Spearman define intelligence?
Intelligence is reduced to a single general factor, called 'g'. 50% is cognitive ability and 50% is external factors, such as drive to succeed.
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How did Carroll define intelligence?
The 'g' factor is split into three stratums. The 3rd is 'g'; the 2nd is the different intelligences that feed into 'g'; the 1st are the skills that help with the intelligences.
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How did Gardner define intelligence?
There are multiple intelligences: visual-spatial, bodily-kinaesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, linguistic, logical-mathematical.
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Card 2


What is GE interaction?


When specific environments activate particular genes.

Card 3


What is GE correlation?


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Card 4


What is cultural transmission?


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Card 5


What is phenotypic assortment?


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