applied crime, colllecting evidence from witnesses

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whats the first step of reids 9 steps of interigation?
Confront the suspect with the evidence that suggests that they are guilty.
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whats the second step of reids 9 steps of interigation?
Theme Development: develop suggestions or justifications for why the crime was committed.
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whats the third step of reids 9 steps of interigation?
interupt any denials
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whats the forth step of reids 9 steps of interigation?
Overcome objections: Use suspects’ reasons for why they could not have committed the crime against them, i.e. loved her means you felt more betrayed by her actions
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whats the fith step of reids 9 steps of interigation?
Retain suspects’ attention: maintain eye-contact, proximity, and use first names, as the suspect may start to become despondent.
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whats the sixth step of reids 9 steps of interigation?
Handling the suspects’ mood: If the suspect cries or looks defeated– infer guilt. Show empathy- repeat the moral justification for the crime.
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whats the seventh step of reids 9 steps of interigation?
Presenting an alternative question: give the suspect reasons for the crime (one more socially acceptable)
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whats the eighth step of reids 9 steps of interigation?
Get the suspect to confess orally and give details of crime which they wouldn’t know if they weren’t present at the scene
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whats the ninth step of reids 9 steps of interigation?
Get a signed and witnessed, or video/audio taped confession
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whats Gujohnsson et al. (1990) a case of?
a case of false confession
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whats the sample of gujonsson?
A 17-year-old male, FC, was accused of the robbery/murder of 2 elderly women. He was arrested because he had no alibi and his spending habits changed.
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how long did they interigate them for and what happend?
He was interrogated for 14 hours without being given the right to a solicitor, confessed, and later retracted his confession. A year later someone else confessed.
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findings from the analysis of police interviews?
Questions were leading * Questions were accusatory and suggested that FC was sexually impotent.
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findings from Analysis of FC by psychiatrists while in prison?
No evidence of mental illness, average IQ, and was a stable extrovert * Scored high on Gudjonsson’s “Suggestibility” scale. (score of 10, making him abnormal in this respect).
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what were the conclusions?
A ‘coerced compliant’ false confession was given, meaning that he gave in to pressure during the interviews in order to escape from an intolerable situation.
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what does the conclusion show?
It shows that it can happen to mentally competent individuals. It may be that personality traits like suggestibility increase the risk of false confessions.
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steps for the cognative interview for witnesses, report everything?
avoids leading questions (which have been proven to distort memory by Loftus & Palmer) and details irrelevant to the crime can cue participants’ schema helping them to remember more relevant details.
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steps for the cognative interview for witnesses,recall in different time order?
recall in reverse order or starting in the middle. Different memory strategies may work for different individuals. Takes individual differences into account.
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what does recall in different times orders prevent?
It also prevents the use of schema to reconstruct a narrative, which is more likely to happen when recalling in chronological order.
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steps for the cognative interview for witnesses, context reinstatment?
get the individual to reimagine the scene from their different senses and how they felt. This contextual information, encoded with the relevant information about the crime, acts as a cue to trigger recall of meaningful information about the crime.
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what is context reinstatment based on?
This is based on the theory of context-dependency, supported by Grant.
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steps for the cognative interview for witnesses, recall from different perspectives?
recall from the perspective of the criminal or victim: another memory strategy which may be effective for some individuals.
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fisher aim?
To test the cognitive interview in the field.
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sample fisher?
16 detectives (all with a minimum of 5 years experience) from the Robbery division of Dade County, Florida, police.
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fisher method?
Field experiment. Independent measures and repeated measures.
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baseline procedure fisher?
Detectives self-select a selection of their interviews with real witnesses to record over 4 months.
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procedure conditions fisher?
Seven of the detectives were then trained in the cognitive interview technique, to compare with those who continued to interview using the standard technique. * Training: 4 60min sessions
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procedure measure fisher?
Detectives selected more interviews to be recorded.
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procedure analysis fisher?
by a team blind to condition (didn’t know if data was collected using a standard or cognitive interview).
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first finding fisher?
47% more information was gathered by the CI trained detectives than before when they were using their standard technique.
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second finding fisher?
63% more information was obtained by CI trained detectives than the other group who continued to use their standard interview technique.
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third finding fisher?
Where other evidence was available (only available for a small number of interviews), 94% of statements were corroborated (accuracy was confirmed by comparing with other evidence).
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fourth finding fisher?
CIs took longer to carry out although this was not a significant difference.
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conclusion fisher?
Cognitive Interview Techniques gather more info which could help solve more crimes.
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Kebbell & Wagstaff
found many police officers did not use the CI technique in less serious crimes as they did not have the time to carry out this type of interview.
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Memon & Higham (1999) method? 1
The effectiveness of various components of the CI techniques
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The effectiveness of various components of the CI techniques 1?
Research suggests that context reinstatement is the most effective component in a study comparing the effectiveness of the stages of cognitive interview used alone on the memory of adults and children acting as witnesses to a filmed crime (Milne)
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The effectiveness of various components of the CI techniques 2?
None of the stages of CI used alone, or as a whole, had a significant effect on the recall of children aged 5-9, compared to a group simply told to ‘try harder’
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The effectiveness of various components of the CI techniques 3?
Enhanced Cognitive Interview (ECI) emphasizes more effective communication between interviewer and witness (e.g. active listening, open questions).
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The effectiveness of various components of the CI techniques 4?
Effectiveness of the CI is partly due to improved communication techniques, e.g. not interrupting/ using leading qus
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method 2?
Comparison between the cognitive interview and other interviewing methods
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Comparison between the cognitive interview and other interviewing methods 1?
The effectiveness of the CI has previously been established by comparing it with the standard interview technique which is not a standardised method. Some officers may have used memory strategies and had some training; others may have interrupted and
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what does Comparison between the cognitive interview and other interviewing methods lack?
This lacks reliability and doesn’t allow us to establish whether CI is the best technique compared to modern methods.
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Comparison with Guided Memory Interview?
this method uses context dependency, which would allow researchers to establish whether CI is more effective than reinstating context alone or whether its effectiveness is only due to this cognitive strategy.
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Comparison with Structured Interview?
the aim of SI is to build rapport, and encourage narrative descriptions of events. It avoids interruptions, employs active listening, and avoids leading questions.
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comparison with structured interview, what does this allow?
This allows researchers to establish whether the effectiveness of the CI is gathering accurate data, is down to improved communication techniques and avoidance of leading questions alone,the combination with memory strategies enhances effectiveness
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method 3?
Measures of memory performance and the effect this has on research findings
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Measures of memory performance and the effect this has on research findings?
The effectiveness is often measured by how much data is recorded or how accurate the data is. This ignores the usefulness of the information or what important details witnesses failed to report.
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method 4?
Interviewer variables and the effect of training quality on interview performance
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Interviewer variables and the effect of training quality on interview performance?
many studies do not test adequately trained CI interviewers (i.e. written instructions), which makes it difficult to compare the results.
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Memon (1994)
compared the amount of information elicited by police trained for 4 hours in ECI or SI techniques. They found no significant difference but both groups showed poor practice in questioning
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what was concluded from memon?
. It was concluded that they had not trained or practiced the techniques adequately enough, and that the university trainer may have been ignored.
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what was suggested from the conslusions?
It was suggested an optimum 2 days of training was required, and that an authority figure, like a sergeant, delivering training, may improve officer’s compliance
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application?
PEACE (can be adapted for witnesses but is mainly for suspects)
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what does p stand for?
Preparation and planning- address practical issues of competence of the individual to be interviewed and whether an advocate needs to be present. Know the facts that have been established or what evidence suggests.
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what does preperation allow the interviewer to do?
This allows the interviewer to notice inconsistencies and develop their line of questioning on that topic.
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what does E stand for?
Engage and explain- Develop rapport because you need their cooperation as they can choose not to cooperate. Let them know their rights.
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what does A stand for?
Account-Free recall of events as irrelevant details may trigger memory of important events. No leading questions. Summarise statements and repeat to interviewee. If they are unable to clarify, it indicates they are concealing information
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what does C stand for?
Closure- End the interview well as they may have to be called for further interviews. Exchange contact details.
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what does the second E stand for?
Evaluate- review data recorded and assess what inconsistencies need to be followed up, and whether there’s enough evidence for a suspect to be charged
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what can also be applied?
Can also apply CI or SI or GMI for witnesses and Reid’s interrogation for suspects.
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