Applications of reproduction and genetics 1

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define the term clone
a group of gentically identical organisms formed from a single parents as a result of asexual reproductoin or by artificial means
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define the term differentiate
cells that become specilised for different functions
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define the term invitro
refers to experiments carrie on outside the living body that is in a lab
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define the term stem cell
an undifferentiated cell capable fo dividing to give rise to cells which can develop into different types of specilised cell
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define the term ethics
a set of standards that are followed by a particular grou of individuals and are designed to regulate their behaviour. They determin what is acceptable
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define the term in vitro ferilisation
a technique hwich involves mixing a females egg or oocyte with th epartners sperm in a dish where fertilsatoin takes place
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define the term meristem
growing points where cells divide rapidly by mitosis
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define the term totipotent
cells capable of differentiation
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define the term gene probe
short piece of DNA the sequences of which are complementry to the mutated sequences
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What are the disadvantages of conventional breeding technques ie selectoin and cross breeding
laborious, time consuming and unpredicatable
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What happens in embryo cloning
eggs are taken from the best femals and fertilise din a petri dish using sperm form the best males
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what is htis know as
in vitro fertilisatoin
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when the fertilised egg divides what does it form
a ball of cells
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What then happens to this group of cells/ younf embryos
they are split into seperate cells
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what will develop from each of these cells
a new embryo
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What is so special about this embryo
It is genetically identical to the original
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What then happens to these embryos
They are transplanted into surrogates
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Whihch technique allows clones ot be produced form one individual
cloning by nuclear transplants
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what type of cell is the nucleas taken formto be transplanted into an egg cell
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cells are taken from a _______
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what is special about the medium in which they are cultured
It stops division
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Who is the unfertilised egg removed from
The recipient
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what is removed form this egg?
The nucleus
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how are hte donor and recipient cells fused together
Using a gentele elctric pulse
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What then happens to produce a ball fo cells
the cells are allowed to divcide
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which sheep is the developing embryp the implanted into
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Why is the lamb born so special?
it is genetically identical to the original donor sheep
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what are 2 advantages of cloning in animals
producoitn of cells in quantity, eg cancer cells for medicla reasearch, can be used to maintain genetic stocks
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what are 3 disadvantages of cloning in animals
expensive and unrelaible, inadvertant selection of disadvantagous alleles, progeny may show long term effects ie premature aging
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what is the name given to the technique og growing cells in a laborotry
tissue culture
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What conditions must be controlled in in the medium where cells are grown
water potiential and temperature
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What dies tissue engineering involve
Inducung living cells to grow on a frameowrk of synthetic material
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What doies this produce
tissue such as skin tissue
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Where is this used
In tratement of burns, aftifila skin called APIGRAF is now widley used in place of skin grafts
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what is naother application of tissue engineerimg
Blood vessle repleacement, bone and cartlidge repair, treatment of degenerative nerve diseases
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WHy is theraputic stem cell cloning so significant
It could produce replacement organs for transplantation
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What is the benifit of these organs
They prevent immune rejection, reduce problem of organ shortages
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what is the 1st stage
matur cell is tkane from paient, nucleus removed
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the nuclues is removed form the human ovum
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the mature call nuclyes is transferred to the empty ovum, then what
the ovum containing the patients DNA divides fo gorm a ball of stem cells
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stem cells are isolated and cultured with apporopriot growth factors allowing them to grow into the requited organ or tissue
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what percentage of fertility probelms are problems with the females reproductive system
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what percentage are related to the male
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and wha of the other 15%
cannot be explained
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in In vitro fertilisation how is ovulatoin stimulated
using hormnes at a specific dosage
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what does this result in
several follicles developing at the same time
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how are the oocytes collected form the female
using a tube isertind thorugh the vcagina into the oviducts
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how are these tubes guided
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when s the mailes semen collevcted and placed in a liquid containg nutriens
the same day
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Each oocytle is thne place idn a dish, and what is added
aboout 100,000 sperm
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how many days later are the oocytes examined
three days
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how many of the fertilised oocytes are selected
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why is this
to increase chances of at least 1 implanting
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give 2 ethical reasons against use of stem cell reaserch
embroys are destroyed, fundamentally devuales human life
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give 2 ethichal reasons for use of stme cell reasearch
benifts outweigh cns, can be used totreat parkinsosn, heart , liver disease, diabatess, cancers
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define the term meristem
growing points where cells divide rapidly by mitosis
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define the termtotipotent
cells capable of differentiation
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what does micropropogation involve
the cloning of plants
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Why is itso widley used
it is exremely cost effective
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what is the first step in micropropogation
a plant with desitred charecteristics is selected
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a sclpal removes what fromthe shoot
the meristem
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the meristem is cut into small peices called ________
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what are the explant spalced onto
sterile, aerated nutrient meduimj, eg agar jelly
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the cells divide by _________
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what is the mass of undifferntiated cells it produces called
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what happens next to the callus
It is subdivided and each piece is differentaited into a plantlet
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what happens when the plants have reached a suitable size
the plantlets are transplanted into sterile soil
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That are the advantaged of micropropogatoin
large numbers of plant gorwn in corntolled conditions, inc survuval rate, good quality stck wth benificial alleles selected, crop is uniform, large no of plants stored in small area- reduced heating and light costs, unique genotypes preserved,
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reduced space for transport, only hjealthy stock selected, leiminating plant disease
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sterile conditions myust be maintained so bacterla or fungal conatminatoin of the cuture medium does not result in plant loss, plants genetically unsatble, inc mutation rate, frequent inspection to remove defectiv eindividuals ergo higher labour cost
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Card 2


define the term differentiate


cells that become specilised for different functions

Card 3


define the term invitro


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Card 4


define the term stem cell


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Card 5


define the term ethics


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