Application of scientific method in psychology

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Objectivity
Views based on observable phenomena and not just opinion, prejudices or emotion.
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Empiricism
Idea that experience is central to the development of new knowledge and thus central to the scientific method. Experience and evidence arise from experiments- not intuition.
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Replicability
Ability for findings or procedures to be reproduced or repeated
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Rational
Based on reason
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Falsifiability
The ability to show that a theory is false
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Paradigm
A shared set of assumptions about the subject matter of a discipline and the methods used to study it
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Peer review
process of subjecting a piece of research to independent scrutiny by other psychologists working in a similar field who consider the research in terms of its validity, significance and originality.
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Theory constuction
Facts collected are used to construct theories. Theories are a collection of general principles that explain observations and facts.
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The scientific method is___
a systematic process designed to obtain objective information to test theories.
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4 features of science
-Empirically based - systematic and controlled - objective - can be tested
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4 features of non-science
frequently intuitive- random and uncontrolled - subjective - cannot be tested
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Ways to improve objectivity
Double blind technique - standardised instructions - quantitative methods
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Key points in the research cycle (Coolican)
Events in social world - hypothesis - research proposal - funding - ethics - research project - check aims were met - check findings important addition 2 knowledge - peer review
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Four key objectives of science
- Desciption (find out what happens) - understanding (how and why it happens) - predict what will happen in specific context - control a phenomenon (where appropriate)
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Hypothesis
A precise, testable statement of the expected outcome of a research study
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Scientific process: steps 1-3: induction
1:Observations 2: patterns identified 3: possible explanations
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Scientific process: steps 4-7: deduction
4: 1+ hypothesis made 5: research 6: theory supported, adjusted or falsified 7: further research
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Card 2

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Idea that experience is central to the development of new knowledge and thus central to the scientific method. Experience and evidence arise from experiments- not intuition.

Back

Empiricism

Card 3

Front

Ability for findings or procedures to be reproduced or repeated

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Based on reason

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The ability to show that a theory is false

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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