Appeasement and the build up to war with Germany

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Name 4 problems faced by Britain in 1936
Italy in the Mediterranean, Germany rearming, Japanese naval power in far east, very few allies
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What did Chamberlain introduce in 1936
4 year rearmament plan
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What were the issues raised regarding rearming?
Britain had to prepare for multiple types of war, Labour criticised the financial spending on it
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Why did Britain appease Germany from 1925-37
Sympathy for Germany, Lack of allies including dominions, fear of communism, and commitment to pacifism from the league
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What were chamberlain's foreign policy aims when he became prime minister?
Realised Germany had grievances to address and wanted to address these not only peacefully, but in a position of British strength
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When did Chamberlain become prime minister?
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Which two government positions had chamberlain held before becoming prime minister?
Chancellor to the Exchequer and Minister of Health
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How did Chamberlain's foreign policy differ to Baldwin's or MacDonald's?
Very hands on approach, didn't trust civil servants, wanted to communicate with other leaders directly.
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Why was chamberlain short of allies in 1937?
France - series of weak short governments, USA - isolationist, USSR - distrust
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What position did Anthony Eden hold in 1938? Why did he resign?
Foreign Secretary, resigned over Chamberlain undermining him and making personal efforts to make agreements with Mussolini
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What strategic replacements did Chamberlain make in government?
'Yes Men' foreign secretary: Halifax - Vansittart 'promoted' and replaced with Cadogan
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How did Hitler justify the Anschluss
Manipulated Chancellor into bringing Austrian Nazis into government; who then invited Hitler to send troops in after the resignation of Chancellor
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Why did some consider Czechoslovakia "an affront to self determination"
Only half of Czechoslovakia's 15m population were Czech
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Why did Sudeten Germans become a problem in the summer of 1938?
Sudetenland technically surrounded by German territory, Sudeten Germans claimed mistreatment and Hitler criticised government
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Name 3 reasons why Chamberlain had little sympathy for Czechoslovakia
British interests not involved, believed Czechoslovakia was highly artificial, sympathy with Sudeten Germans
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What was the role of Lord Runciman in the summer of 1938?
Sent to Czechoslovakia in August 1938; neither Czechs nor Sudeten Germans willing to compromise
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What and when was Berchtesgaden?
15th September - First meeting between Hitler and Chamberlain
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What and when was Bad Godesberg?
22nd September - Second meeting between Chamberlain and Hitler
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What and when was Munich?
29th September - Final meeting between Chamberlain and Hitler. Chamberlain agreed to give Hitler the Sudetenland.
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Name 2 extra concessions made at the second meeting with Hitler?
Sudetenland to be occupied immediately, Hungarian and Polish claims to be met too
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What evidence is there that Chamberlain truly believed Hitler's word in Munich?
'Peace in our time' speech
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Who resigned over Munich?
Duff Cooper, First Lord of the Admiralty
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What arguments are there that Britain should have gone to war in September 1938?
Germany army not as strong as believed; Luftwaffe not ready for serious attack; most German generals worried by war; good Czech forces with strong fortifications
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What arguments are there that Chamberlain did the right thing?
Britain defenceless against air attack; unlikely that USSR would have helped; Dominions reluctant to fight over Czechoslovakia; public not united in determination to fight
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Why did Britain and France still fail to reach an agreement after Munich?
Britain didn't trust France, and France didn't believe Britain would protect them
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Name 3 reasons why Chamberlain was more confident of Britain's ability to fight in 1939?
Increased aircraft production, increased radar protection, realised much of Germany's strength was exaggerated
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Name 3 reasons why the takeover of the remainder of Czechoslovakia left Chamberlain outraged?
Hitler had broken his word; had taken land that was not ‘reasonably his’; pressure from government and press to react to Hitler
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What was issued on the 31st March 1939?
The Polish Guarantee - would protect them if they were the victim of an unprovoked attack
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What criticism was there of the Polish Guarantee?
Angered Hitler, Poland was anti-semitic and a dictatorship, we were in a poor geographical location to defend Poland, we accepted Japanese/Italian expansion
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What support was there of the Polish Guarantee?
Poland a useful ally, clear warning to Hitler, left room for negotiating territorial changes.
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Why was an Anglo-Soviet alliance unlikely from a Soviet perspective?
The only offer Britain presented was war with Germany, they didn't trust Britain after Munich Conference, they thought Britain was pushing Hitler eastwards
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Why was an Anglo-Soviet alliance unlikely from a British perspective?
Distrust because of Communism, weakness of USSR armies because of purges, Eastern European states would never accept to soviet troops on their soil
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Was Chamberlain to blame for the Nazi Soviet Pact?
Probably not – the above suspicions made any agreement difficult and Poles refused to make a military agreement with USSR
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When was the Nazi Soviet Pact?
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After which event did many newspapers begin to speak out against appeasement?
March 1939 - invasion of the rest of Czechoslovakia
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By September 1939, what percentage of the population supported a war against "Hitlerism"?
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Name 4 reasons why opposition to appeasement was ultimately ineffective?
Many of Hitler's actions were justifiable, there was a lack of collaboration between parties, fear of war, no viable alternatives
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Whats the traditional interpretation of Chamberlain and appeasement?
Was duped by Hitler, unrealistic views of pacifism, sold out Czechoslovakia
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Why is the revisionist view more sympathetic of Chamberlain?
Documents released after 30 year rule show lack of options (economy, defensive, allies) and scale of problems
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What is RAC Parker's post-revisionist view of Chamberlain?
Wanted a place in the history books, a legacy
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When was the Anschluss
March 1938
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What did members of the Labour party describe Chamberlain's appeasement as?
A Samaritan taking clothes off the wayfarer and giving them to the robber
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Why couldn't Churchill and his conservatives agree on an alternative to appeasement with Labour and the Liberals?
Churchill wanted to rearm, Labour viewed it as 'war-mongering' whereas Churchill viewed it as a necessary deterrent
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What did Conservative 'back benchers' desire?
A balance of power for Eden, as well as a grand alliance resulting in states surrounding Britain and France offering mutual protection.
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Why didn't the conservative back benchers' alternative to appeasement materialise?
A combination of Churchill's reputation as well as the conservatives being seen as being in 'the evening of their days'
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Which allies did the Labour party seek in an attempt to appeasement?
Russia and the League of Nations
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Why couldn't Labour's potential allies become our allies?
Distrust for Russia due to ideological differences, lack of trust in the League of nations following their failures
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What shows that the League of Nations wasn't a potential alternative to appeasement?
In 1931 there were over 400,000 members in “The League of Nations Union” where as there were only 100,000 by 1940. The liberal party described the LofN as 'abandoned'
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In October 1938, What percentage of Britons believed that parts of Czechoslovakia wouldn't be the last of territorial demands from Hitler following the Munich conference
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What percentage of Britons believed Chamberlain was right to meet Hitler?
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Which paper can be given responsibility for contributing to positive public opinion towards appeasement, and why?
The Daily Mail, with 1.6m readers pushed pro-appeasement views in its papers
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How did the British board of Film Censors affect the pro-appeasement views in the British Public?
by 1934 there were 4305 cinemas with 23,000,000 visitors per week. Newsreels which depicted Chamberlain as being on a peace mission were played.
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What proof is there that the Munich Agreement was a success?
In Feb 1939 - 46% of Britons believed Chamberlain's policy would keep them out of war until Britain rearmed.
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How many conservative MPs abstained from supporting the Munich agreement
fewer than 30
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Which protest shows the negative public opinion regarding munich?
10,000 protesting in trafalgar square
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What percentage of Britons favoured increased expenditure on rearmament?
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Why was the Munich agreement so crushing to Czechoslovakian industry?
70% of its iron/steel had been lost, 70% of its electrical power, the Skoda works and 3.5m people lost.
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Which quote from Hitler shows Chamberlain had made a huge mistake at Munich?
Our enemies are little worms. I saw them at Munich
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In Autumn 1938, what capacity were the Luftwaffe running at?
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What is one indicator that chamberlain received, which shows the public approved of the Munich agreement?
40,000 congratulatory letters on return from munich
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How many people had radio licenses in 1938
8.5 million britons
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What change was there in British aircraft production in the build up to war?
240 a month - 1938, 660 a month - September 1939
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Which quote from Chamberlain in MArch 1939 shows Chamberlain's awareness of Nazi aggression?
IS this the last attack on a small state or is it to be followed by another
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What developments were there in British radar?
1938 - Thames estuary. 1939 Orkneys to Isle of Wight
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Card 2


What did Chamberlain introduce in 1936


4 year rearmament plan

Card 3


What were the issues raised regarding rearming?


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Card 4


Why did Britain appease Germany from 1925-37


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What were chamberlain's foreign policy aims when he became prime minister?


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