Apoptosis - programmed cell death

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  • Created by: Steff06
  • Created on: 24-04-16 15:03
What is apoptosis?
Programmed cell death.
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How does it compare to cell necrosis?
Cell necrosis is untidy and damaging cell death that occurs after trauma and releases hydrolytic enzymes.
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What speed is the process?
Very quick process.
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What is the first thing that happens in apoptosis?
Enzymes break down the cell cytoplasm.
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What then happens to the cytoplasm?
Cytoplasm becomes dense, with organelles tightly packed.
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What happens next?
The cell surface membrane changes and small bits called blebs form.
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What happens to the chromatin?
Chromatin condenses and nuclear envelope breaks. DNA breaks into fragments.
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What happens after DNA breaks into fragments?
Cell breaks into vesicles that are taken up by phagocytosis. Cellular debris is disposed of and does not damage other tissues or cells.
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What is apoptosis controlled by?
Cell signals including cytokines, hormones, growth factors and nitric oxide.
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What can nitric oxide do?
Induce apoptosis by making inner mitochondrial membrane more permeable to hydrogen ions, dissipating the proton gradient.
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What is apoptosis part of?
Plant and animal development.
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What happens to excess cells?
They shrink, fragment and are phagocytosed so components are reused and no harmful hydrolytic enzymes are released.
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Where are proteins released to and what happens?
Proteins released into cytosol. Bind to apoptosis inhibitor proteins and allow process to take place.
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Does each tissue use the same signals for inducing apoptosis?
No, different tissues use different signals to induce it.
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What do apoptosis allow in limb development?
Allows digits to separate from each other.
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What should the rate of dying balance?
The rate of cells produced my mitosis.
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What 2 things happen if these rates don't balance?
Too little apoptosis leads to formation of tumours. Too much leads to cell loss and degeneration.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How does it compare to cell necrosis?

Back

Cell necrosis is untidy and damaging cell death that occurs after trauma and releases hydrolytic enzymes.

Card 3

Front

What speed is the process?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the first thing that happens in apoptosis?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What then happens to the cytoplasm?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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