Antipredator mechanisms (after detection)

What are mechanisms animals use to AVOID detection? (prior)
Predator avoidance mechanisms.
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After detection, what can animals employ?
Antipredator mechanisms.
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What are the antipredator mechanisms?
Rapid escape, startle the predator, advertise unprofitability, be distasteful, hide among cospecifics, redirect attack, attack back.
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Rapid escape?
Run really fast. Can manoevre e.g. zig zag to outrun predator.
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Startle predator?
Can mimic much larger animal. Frighten predator. Create momentary confusion so prey can escape. Praying mantis - look bigger than it is.
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What is Aposematism?
Conspicuous traits that signal unprofitability e.g. bright colours, odours or sounds.
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What is Batesian Mimicry?
Harmless species evolves to mimic warning signals of a harmful species e.g. hoverfly.
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Are all conspicious traits aposematism?
No some are not there to warn predators, but makes it hard to distinguish animals, what it's doing, what direction its moving in. E.g. zebras stripes.
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What is disruptive colouration?
Traits which make it hard for predators to distinguish between members of the same species e.g. what direction they're going in, what they're doing, single out from the rest. Creates confusion.
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What is the Selfish Herd Effect?
Individuals of a herd cluster together, by being in the middle or as a group, decreases likelihood of getting eaten. For the individual benefit, rather than good of the group.
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What is the Dilution Effect?
Makes it less likely more members will get eaten. It overwhelms predator, making it more likely to only get one rather than multiple members.
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Why does redirecting attack work as an antipredator mechanism?
Traits e.g. markings can direct attack to non-critical part of body.
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Why does attacking back work as an antipredator mechanism?
Develop strategies to hurt the predator e.g. kicking really hard can injure the predator enough to cause death.
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Card 2


After detection, what can animals employ?


Antipredator mechanisms.

Card 3


What are the antipredator mechanisms?


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Card 4


Rapid escape?


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Card 5


Startle predator?


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