Antibiotic Resistance

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What are the two types of antibiotic?
Bactericidal and Bacteriostatic.
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What is osmotic lysis?
When the cell wall is weakened due to key enzymes that are needed for chemical bonds to make cell walls. This prevents the cell from forming these bonds properly so when water enters by osmosis, the cell bursts because it can't withstand the pressure
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What is vertical gene transmission?
Occurs through asexual reproduction/binary fission to produce two daughter cells which are exact copies of the parent cell.
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What is horizontal gene transmission?
It can occur between same or different bacteria species. The bacterium meets another and forms a thin conjugation tube which connects the two cells. All gene plasmids are then swapped - made linear and passed through.
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How can bacterial resistance occur naturally?
It can occur through chance mutations in bacterial DNA. This can cause a change in the proteins that lead to a new characteristic. This can be beneficial in resistance.
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How can resistance occur as a result of not finishing a course of antibiotics?
The weaker bacteria would be killed of by the antibiotic first leaving the resistant ones behind. If the antibiotic does not target them they will reproduce and pass on the resistant gene until most of the bacterium have this gene.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is osmotic lysis?

Back

When the cell wall is weakened due to key enzymes that are needed for chemical bonds to make cell walls. This prevents the cell from forming these bonds properly so when water enters by osmosis, the cell bursts because it can't withstand the pressure

Card 3

Front

What is vertical gene transmission?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is horizontal gene transmission?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How can bacterial resistance occur naturally?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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