Biological rhythms studies

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: 8cburton
  • Created on: 18-05-15 14:17
The sleep wake cycle- Morgan
removed SCN from hamsters... circadian rhythms dissapeared. Transplanted SCN from irregular circadain rhythms and found the hamsters receiving th SCN took on the mutant rhythm
1 of 63
The sleep wake cycle- Schochat et al
6 male participants spent 29 consecutive hours in a sleep lab. Spent 7 mins every 20 mins trying to sleep in the dark to see how hard it is to fall asleep (sleep gate). Blood samples taken every 20 mins (melatonin). Found melatonin proceeded sleep
2 of 63
The sleep wake cycle- Michel Siffre
2 months in a cave. Developed a 25 hour sleep wake cycle
3 of 63
The sleep wake cycle- Miles et al
Wrote about a bling man from bith who had a 24.9 hour circadian rhythm despite external cues (radio and clocks). Only way to reset it is seditives and stimulants
4 of 63
Sleep wake cycle- Mariana Figeuiro
University of california researched effects of self- luminous tablets might have on melatonin suppression. Observed 13 volunteers- found 2 hour exposure to light can suppress melatonin by 22%
5 of 63
Infradian rhythm- Follicle stimulating hormone
Day 5- stimulates growth of follicles
6 of 63
Infradian rhythm- Oestrogen
Day 7-14 Builds up endometrium
7 of 63
Infradian rhythm- Lutenizing hormone
Mid cycle- Cause the mature egg to be released from the ovary
8 of 63
Infradian rhythm- Progesterone
Mid cycle during ovulation- prepares endometrium for implantation, reinforces oestrogen
9 of 63
Infradian rhythm- HCG
Released by the Choronic Villus (fertilised egg) which prevents the break down of the corpus luteum. The corpus luteum secrets progesterone to maintain the endometrium
10 of 63
Infradian rhythm- Evidence for pheromones- Russell et al
Pheromones of a women to group of sexually inactive women. Donor odor from armpits applied to upper lip. Repeated daily for 5 months. By the end 4/5 had synchronised mentral cycles to within a day of the donor.
11 of 63
Infradian rhythm- Evidence for pheromones- Mc Clintock
Suggested male pheromones may reset a womens biological clock. This comes from observing that women who work with men ofter experience shortening mentral cycles.
12 of 63
Infradian rhythm- Evidence for light- Reinerg
Documented a women who spent 3 months in a cave with dim lights found her mentral cycle was shorter (25.7 days). Contradics another cave study where siffre sleep wake cycle lengthened.
13 of 63
Infradian rhythm- Germany further research
Showed the onset of menstration was more likely in winter and is reached earlier by blind girls
14 of 63
Ultradian rhythm- Wehr
Participants in darkness for 14 hours per day. Took time for sleep to regulate but then they settled into regular pattern. Slept 1st for 3-5 hours then woke for 1-2 hours thne slept again for 3-5 hours.
15 of 63
Ultradian rhythm- Ekirch
Historical records across cultures show segmented sleep pattern. Disappeared from western society by 1920 as night became more of a social activity so length of time spent asleep has shortened. This means we have more nREM sleep and less REM sleep.
16 of 63
Jet lag- Klein et al
Confirmed flying west- east caused more jet lag by looking at flights from the UK to the US. They also found one day per time zone is needed for recovery.
17 of 63
Jet lag- Schwatz et al
analysed results of american baseball games and found the west coast teams travelling east had significantly fewer wins than the east teams travelling west.
18 of 63
Shift work- Blackmore
Chemical plant in Utah who work a 3 week schedual- 1st wk night, 2nd wk evening, 3rd wk day. This is the mos common shift pattern + lab animals subjected to this suffered from increased heart disease and shorter life span
19 of 63
Shift work- czeisler et al
Rotate the shift forward in time and tested it with same chemical plant. workers reported feeling better and management reported few errors+ increased productivity
20 of 63
Shift work- Australian study
1000 women showed no link between shift work and breat cancer (found in mice)
21 of 63
Shift work- Hansen
Found a link between shift work and breast cancer in 69 women from Danish military
22 of 63
Shift work- Hansen's 2nd finding
40% increase in breast cancer in night shift. Shift workers who described themselves as 'morning people' had 4X higher risk of breast cancer than women who worked during the day.
23 of 63
Stages of sleep- Stage 1
Light sleep, hypnogogic stage, alpha waves
24 of 63
Stages of sleep- Stage 2
K-Complex + sleep spindles, slower theta waves
25 of 63
Stages of sleep- Stage 3+4
Sleep spindle, long slow delta waves, heart rate+ body temp drop
26 of 63
Stages of sleep- Stage 5
REM sleep, body paralysed, hard to wake up, high freq small amp beta waves
27 of 63
Stages of sleep- Borbely
Found REM deprived people made 31 attempts to re-enter REM on the 1st night, 51 on the 2nd night and over 60 in the 3rd night
28 of 63
Stages of sleep- Sharpio et al
runners in the ultra marathoon slept an hour and a half more on the 2 nights following + more time in stage 4 sleep
29 of 63
Stages of sleep- Dement
REM deprived group were more irritable, aggressive+ unable to concentrate on various tasks compared to control group
30 of 63
Lifespan changes in sleep-babies- Breedlove et al
suggests that the high level of REM sleep helps the brain grow and organise the information they are learning
31 of 63
Lifespan changes in sleep- adolescents- Wolfson and carskadon
surveyed 3000 American high school students and found they were getting on average 7.3 hours a night. also found those who went to bed early got As.
32 of 63
Lifespan changes in sleep- adolescents- Monkseaton high school
Phase delay led the school to open at 10am. Early results indicated general absence dropped by 8% and persistent absenteeism by 27%
33 of 63
Lifespan changes in sleep- older people- Ancoli et al
Argues that healthy adults rarely have sleep problems and that poor sleep is caused by illness and medication they take rather than ageing
34 of 63
Lifespan changes- wider evaluation- Webb
university of Florida found differences between participants in his sleep studies suggesting sleep is personal and cannot generalise to the whole population as there is no 'norm'.
35 of 63
Evolutionary theory- hibernation theory- Webb
We sleep to reduce energy spent on behavioural activity and heat
36 of 63
Evolution theory- predation theory- Meddis
less exposure to predators and need for food determines the time spent in sleep
37 of 63
Evolutionary theories- Alison and Cicchetti
analysed sleep patern of 39 animal speicies and found relationship between risk of predator and amount of sleep.
38 of 63
Evolutionary theories- Hibernating
Takes place in the winter when its cold and their is a lack of resources which supports the hibernation theory
39 of 63
Evolutionary theories- Fatal Familial Insomnia
Shows sleep is vital as people who cant sleep die, completely going against the evolutionary theory
40 of 63
Evolutionary theories- Every species sleep
Even shrews who are better off not sleeping and dolphins who have adapted a specific way to sleep (one hemisphere at a time) suggesting there is another reason to why all animals sleep, reducing support for the evolutionary theory
41 of 63
Restoration theory- Oswald
Early restoration theory that REM sleep is for restoring and organising the nervous system while the nREM is the restoration and repair of the body through the release of growth hormones from the pituitary gland
42 of 63
Restoration theory- Horne
Sleep is needed for psychological repair. Core sleep (4+5) and optional sleep (1+2+3). core sleep is critical for normal brain functioning.
43 of 63
Restoration theory- Peter Tripp
Stayed away for 8 days and suffered from hallucination + server delusions. long term consequences with low mood. Support hornes theory that sleep is need for psychological repair.
44 of 63
Restoration theory- Randy Gardner
Stayed away for 11 days, suffered for blurred vision, disorganised speech and small degree of paranoia. After the ordeal he slept for 15 hours, recovering 70% of his stage 4 and 50% of his stage 5. Supports Hornes theory of brain repair
45 of 63
Restoration theory- Fatal familial insomnia
Supports restoration theory in general as it shows without sleep our body and brain cannot function propperly leading to death
46 of 63
Resoration theory- Sharpio et al
Found runners after an ultra marathon slept 1 and 1/2 hours longer on the following 2 nights and much more time spent in stage 4
47 of 63
Resoration theory- Empson
Noted that the disruption of stage 4 sleep in healthy people led to backpain supporting oswalkds theory that nREM sleep is needed for body repair
48 of 63
Sleep disorders- Narcolepsy AO1
Hypocretin neurotransmitter regulates arousal, wakefulness and appetite. Some genetic variations on chromosome 6 predispose individual to narcolepsy. The variation increases risk of auto-immune response to the neurones that produce hypocretin
49 of 63
Sleep disorders- Narcolepsy- Dement
Mice who couldnt make hypocretin developed symptoms of narcolepsy including sleep attacks
50 of 63
Sleep disorders- Narcolepsy- Mingot et al
Positional cloning to pinpoint a defective gene called hypocretin receptor 2 in dogs. Defective form of gene encodes for gene that cannot recognise important signals, including wakefullness
51 of 63
Sleep disorders- Naroclepsy- Mingot
discovered 25-31% concordance rate for narcolepsy between MZ twins and 1-2% for 1st degree relatives
52 of 63
Sleep disorders- Narcolepsy- Picchioni et al
63 narcoleptics and 63 controls. Questionnaire to asses freq of stressors+ infections. Major changes to sleep pattern carry significant risk + flu infection before puberty increased risk of developing narcolepsy. Partially supports
53 of 63
Sleep disorders- Primary insomnia- theorist
Speilman and Glovinsky
54 of 63
Sleep disorders- Primary insomnia AO1
Predisposing factors (genetic vulnerability to hyperarousal). Precipitating factors (stress or environmental change making it temporarily hard to get to sleep). Perpetuating factors (maintain insomnia when precipitating factors have gone)
55 of 63
Sleep disorders- Primary insomnia- Predisposing factors- Watson et al
50% of the variance in the risk for insomnia could be attributed to genetic factors in a twin study
56 of 63
Sleep disorders- Primary insomnia- Predisposing factors- Wang et al
Patients with chronic insomnia+ healthy controls. Those who scored higher on the neuroticism, anxiety and impulsivity scales had chronic primary insomnia. Result of neurotransmitter imbalance+ poor functioning of hypothalamus
57 of 63
Sleep disorder- Primary insmonia- prcipitating factors- Morin
Daily measures of stressful events, pre-sleep arousal and sleep for 21 days. Both groups had similar number of stressful events. Insmoniacs perceived their lives more stressful and had worse coping skills and more pre-seep arousal.
58 of 63
Sleep disorders- Primary insomnia- Perpetuating factors- Dement
Sleep-state misconceptions. 1 participant with sever insmonia always over estimated how long it takes to go to sleep (mean time estimated 90mins but never took more than 30 mins). Another participant reported sleeping 4 hrs when they actually got 6.5
59 of 63
Sleep disorders- Sleep walking AO1
Diathesis stress model. Diathesis= genetic predsipostion to have incomplete arousal (high freq beta waves in SWS). Stress= maturation of key neural circuits and other factors that increase amount of SWS (childhood, alcohol, sleep deprivation)
60 of 63
Sleep disorders- Sleep walking- Hublin et al
Finnish study of over 11,000 participants. Concordance rate 0.55 for MZ and 0.35 for DZ. 89% men and 86% of women reported sleepwalking history
61 of 63
Sleep disorders- Sleep walking- Lecendreux et al
High incidence among MZ twins than DZ (50% and 12%) suggesting strong genetic link. Although MZ twins have identical environments which could be a confounding variable
62 of 63
Sleep disorders- Sleep walking- Zadra
40 patients in sleep lab prevented from sleeping. 1st night 50% sleepwalked and on 2nd night 90% sleepwalked. Sleep deprivation doesnt cause sleepwalking in normal individuals. Supports idea of sleep deprivation being a stressor
63 of 63

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

6 male participants spent 29 consecutive hours in a sleep lab. Spent 7 mins every 20 mins trying to sleep in the dark to see how hard it is to fall asleep (sleep gate). Blood samples taken every 20 mins (melatonin). Found melatonin proceeded sleep

Back

The sleep wake cycle- Schochat et al

Card 3

Front

2 months in a cave. Developed a 25 hour sleep wake cycle

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Wrote about a bling man from bith who had a 24.9 hour circadian rhythm despite external cues (radio and clocks). Only way to reset it is seditives and stimulants

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

University of california researched effects of self- luminous tablets might have on melatonin suppression. Observed 13 volunteers- found 2 hour exposure to light can suppress melatonin by 22%

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Sleep resources »