Anomalistic Research Flashcards

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Anomalistic (Scientific Fraud): The Cottingley Fairies, Cooper (1982)
16 –year-old Frances & her 10-year-old sister Elsie forged photos of fairies using cardboard cut-outs to support their claim that they had befriended some fairies living at the bottom of their garden, admitted over 60 years after public release.
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Anomalistic (Pseudoscience): Francois Magendie (1843)
Biologist, proposed PHRENOLOGY; personality shown through bumps on the head.
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Anomalistic Psychology: G.M Beard (1879)
“Not our houses, but our brains are haunted”
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Anomalistic Psychology: Sagan (2010)
“pseudoscience provides easy answers that are desirable, managing to dodge scrutiny due pandering to the gullible on issues that fulfil emotional needs that science can’t.” – People want to believe!
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Anomalistic Psychology: Broad & Wade (1982)
Suggest that true scientists have much more to gain from the rewards and face less scrutiny than psychic phenomena do (you get fraud in all areas of psychology).
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Anomalistic (Ganzfeld Procedure): Bem & Honorton (1994)
Conducted a meta-analysis of 11 autoganzfeld procedures; strict controls (including computer administration and soundproof/electrically shielded rooms) 240 participants, 354 trails. Expect 25% ‘hit rate’, found a range of 24-54%, 32.5% average.
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Anomalistic (Soal Affair): Soal (1939)
Tested 160 participants for ESP abilities on 128,000 card guessing trials finding no evidence of telepathy, rechecked data for displacement (idea that a psychic may be a little behind due to temporal displacement) – Basil Shakleton identified.
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Anomalistic (Soal Affair): Markwick (1978)
Reanalysed original research and found false data, which when removed reduced the findings to within-chance levels. Soal’s research caused intense harm to the field of parapsychology.
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Anomalistic (Autoganzfeld Methodology): Carroll (2003)
“There is clearly scope for subjective interpretation about what counts as a match”
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Anomalistic (Psychokinesis): Nelson & Radin (1989)
RANDOM NUMBER GENERATION: Meta-analysis of 832 experiments, including 258 control studies by 68 experimenters, found a small, but significant effect (51%).
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Anomalistic (Psychokinesis): Radin & Ferrari (1991)
DICE THROWING: Meta-analysis on 148 studies, involving 2.6 million throws & 52 investigators, showed a small but significant result.
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Anomalistic (Psychokinesis): Schmidt (1976)
INCREASING/ DECREASING OUTPUT: Found that participants could make clicks on a cassette tape, generated randomly by a radioactive source, stronger or weaker by mental effort.
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Anomalistic (Psychokinesis): Hansel (1989)
Found that when the criteria necessary for conclusive evidence of PK was applied to the studies of dice throwing (2 researchers, true randomisation of targets & independent recorders), none of the tests produced conclusive evidence.
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Anomalistic (Psychokinesis): Stevens (1999)
Found that participants who were asked to control the paths of laser beams had more influence over them than a control group (who made no mental effort).
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Anomalistic Psychology: Abelson (1978)
Claimed that `extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence`, this suggests that the evidence needed to establish a new phenomena is directly proportional to how incompatible the phenomena are with current beliefs.
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Anomalistic (Psychokinesis): Scmeidler & McConnell (1958)
Found that believer of PK produced more supporting evidence in tests of paranormal abilities – bias?
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Anomalistic (Psychokinesis): Bierman (2000)
Analysed the results of micro-PK studies since the 1930s and found a steady decline in the effect size. If there is a real effect, usually the result size increases due to scientists becoming increasingly better at identifying and controlling extran
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Anomalistic (Psychokinesis): Bosch et al. (2006)
Found in their meta-analysis of RNG, that there is evidence but that poor methodology is an issue, with older studies showing greater effects than newer, larger & better controlled studies.
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Anomalistic (Psychokinesis): CASE STUDY OF POLTERGEIST EVENTS (1977)
A family in Enfield, North London, reported chest of drawers moving across the floor, strange events continued for the next few months, witnessed by many, including police and those in 14-month investigation from Psychical Research Society.
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Anomalistic (Coincidence): Watt (1990/91)
“There is a HIDDEN CAUSE to your reported ability that you are not aware of”
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Anomalistic (Coincidence): Falk (1982; 1989)
Extraordinary coincidences are singled out when they occur and given a significant status. This suggests a bias in cognitive processing. Furthermore, unlikely coincidences are considered more significant when they happen to us- egocentric bias.
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Anomalistic (Coincidence): Chopra (2003)
“All events can be related to unseen or prior causes/associations”
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Anomalistic (Coincidence): Watt (1990/91)
A nearly is more likely than an exact. There is more chance of this happening but this ‘coincidence’ may lead you to thinking you have an ability.
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Anomalistic (Coincidence): Watt (1990/91)
THE LAW OF EXTREMELY LARGE NUMBERS: Something which happens 1 in 1Million every day is going to happen to 61 people every day in the UK or 22,265 times a year – not amazing, just maths!
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Anomalistic (Probability Judgement): Sheep-Goat Effect
Sheep are believers in PSI whereas goats are non-believers in PSI.
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Anomalistic (Probability Judgement): Jones and Russell (1980)
Showed that sleep distort memories of PSI towards it being successful, goats are more accurate at recalling the truth – cognitive bias can affect experience.
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Anomalistic (Probability Judgement): Gow et al. (2001)
Discovered that people who claim contact with a UFO tend to be more fantasy prone.
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Anomalistic (Probability Judgement): Brugger et al. (1990)
REPITITION AVOIDANCE: Sheep avoid repetition more than goats, illustrates link between paranormal belief and probability judgement.
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Anomalistic (Probability Judgement): Blackmore and Troscianko (1985)
Asked participants various questions including the birthday party paradox – how many people would you need at a party to have 50% chance that two will have the same birthday (not counting year) – more goats than sheep got this right!
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Anomalistic (Probability Judgement): Blackmore (1997)
Concluded that both believers and non-believers are equally accurate in judgements of probability.
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Anomalistic (Probability Judgements): Musch and Ehrenberg (2002)
Controlled for differences in general cognitive ability and found this reduced the performance difference between believers and non-believers on probability judgement tasks to zero.
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Anomalistic (Probability Judgements): Kahneman and Tversky (1972)
Suggest that people use various heuristics (strategies to solve problems), such as representativeness – methodology used does not account for this, makes it difficult to understand link.
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Anomalistic (Superstition): Skinner (1947)
BEHAVIOURAL: Proposed that superstitions develop through operant conditioning where an accidental stimulus-response link is learned.
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Anomalistic (Superstition): Kokko (2009)
EVOLUTIONARY: Argues that the adaptive advantage will remain as long the ‘correct response’ happens after the belief.
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Anomalistic (Superstition): Jahoda (1969)
COGNITIVE: Thinking error’s/false perception or memory. The way we think about situations may lead to superstitions. ‘Selective forgetting’ –we forget the information which disproves a superstition but remember info which confirms it.
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Anomalistic (Superstition): Freud (1901)
PSYCHODYNAMIC: Unconscious, unacceptable thoughts repressed in unconscious, unknown motive for behaviour. Superstitions = attaching unconscious threats to real world events
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Anomalistic (Superstition): Skinner (1948)
Found that pigeons adopted unique body movement superstitions by learning to associate them with food pellets.
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Anomalistic (Superstition): Lustberg (2004)
Found superstitions among sportspeople to be beneficial, as they increase confident motivation and persistence, thus increasing the chances of winning.
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Anomalistic (Superstition): Fluke et al. (2010)
Conducted questionnaires with 200 undergraduates, finding three reasons for a belief in superstition: gain control over uncertainties, decrease feelings of helplessness, and because they are easier to rely on than coping strategies.
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Anomalistic (Superstition): (Ayeroff 1976)
Some people are better at judging the probability of coincidental events than others - Another reason why people seek explanations for coincidence it because it gives them a sense of control. Believers of superstition = greater illusion of control.
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Anomalistic (Superstition): Tobacyk and Millford (1983)
Found that college women were more likely to believe in precognition but college men were more likely to believe in Bigfoot – gender differences.
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Anomalistic (Magical Thinking): Lawrence et al. (1994)
PSYCHODYNAMIC: Positive correlation between childhood trauma and magical thinking, supporting the idea of magical thinking as a coping method.
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Anomalistic (Magical Thinking): Perkins & Allen (2006)
PSYCHODYNAMIC: Childhood abuse in students – more magical thinking for ESP (control) rather than UFO’s (not control).
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Anomalistic (Magical Thinking): Irwin (1994)
PSYCHODYNAMIC: Children of alcoholics have stronger magical thinking to cope with negative atmosphere.
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Anomalistic (Magical Thinking): Vamos (2010)
Reasons for not donating an organ are usually irrational and may be based on the LAW OF CONTAGION: linking the act of donating to the image of a dead body = negative emotions, donation rates might increase if more focus was made on the benefits.
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Anomalistic (Magical Thinking): Rozin
Demonstrated NOMINAL REALISM in adults - found that people are reluctant to tear up a piece of paper with a loved one's name written on it.
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Anomalistic (Magical Thinking): Schweder (1997)
Saw magical thinking as serving the function of searching for meaningful connections between things, thus serving to increase the sense of certainty and control.
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Anomalistic (Magical Thinking): Beyerstein (1997)
Reports that many patients and even therapists will interpret ‘alternative’ practices and medicines, which have no scientific basis, as a ‘cure’ even when they are taking traditionally prescribed medicines, known to have a scientific effect.
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Anomalistic (Personality Factors): Wisemann and Watt (2004)
NEUROTICISM: Used two (widely-used) type of personality questionnaires, found that neuroticism scores were associated with a belief in the paranormal.
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Anomalistic (Personality Factors): Williams et al. (2007)
NEUROTICISM: assessed 179 13-16 year olds and found that neuroticism was fundamental to individual differences in belief, independent of extroversion or psychosis.
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Anomalistic (Personality Factors): Honorton et al. (1998)
EXOTROVERSION: Meta- analysis of 60 studies, found that extroversion was significantly linked with ESP ability.
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Anomalistic (Personality Factors): Honorton (1998)
EXTROVERSION: isolated and tested 12 individuals, found that all gave a significant result between ESP ability and extroversion.
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Anomalistic (Personality Factors): Gow et al. (2001)
FANTASY PRONENESS: examined the presence of FP in a sample of people who claimed to have seen a UFO/ been abducted, had heightened levels of FP – suggests link.
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Anomalistic (Personality Factors): Roberts (1997)
FANTASY PRONENESS: Analysed three main studies in FP and anomalistic experiences, only one showed significant results.
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Anomalistic (Psychic Healing): Benor (1995)
“The intentional influence of one or more people upon one or more living systems without utilising known physical means of intervention”
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Anomalistic (Psychic Healing): Wirth (1990)
Therapeutic Touch; Patients were either treated with TT or no treatment, didn’t know which condition, eyes shut they did not know if TT or not, eliminated placebo effect. Those who were treated with TT healed faster.
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Anomalistic (Psychic Healing): Wirth (1990)
However, failed to replicate his own findings later convicted of fraud.
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Anomalistic (Psychic Healing): Cha et al. (2001)
The Miracle Study: looked at the effects of prayer on infertile women, women were prayed for by Christian strangers. Found: Twice as many women who were prayed for became pregnant.
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Anomalistic (Psychic Healing): Abbott et al (2001)
Found that psychic healing did not aid Chronic Pain, no significant reduction in pain therefore the study does not support the use of healing for the sufferers of chronic pain.
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Anomalistic (Psychic Healing): Lyver et al (2006)
Found that belief in the healer’s ability rather than the actual abilities is central to the effectiveness since belief seems to temporarily alleviate pain, possibly through one’s own internal pain response systems – Placebo effect.
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Anomalistic (Psychic Mediumship): Roe (1996)
Suggests that Barnum statements may be used in psychic readings so that people readily agree with them.
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Anomalistic (Psychic Mediumship): O’Keeffe & Wiseman (2005)
BARNUM STATEMENTS: length and type of statement was a factor, with sitters giving higher meaning and accuracy to longer and more generalised statements than for shorter, more specific statements.
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Anomalistic (Psychic Mediumship): Brugger (2001)
Most people are wired to find meaningful connections between unrelated events, known as APOPHENIA or the tendency to make a type one error.
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Anomalistic (Psychic Mediumship): Moreman (2003)
APOPHENIA: asked postgraduate Eng Lit students to look at a series of scripts that combining five randomly selected passages from books. Found many correspondances - conclude that people may see meaning in randomness in the communication of mediums.
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Anomalistic (Psychic Mediumship): Hagemen et al (2010)
BIOLOGICAL: notes that the drumming & chanting often used in Brazil to induce a trance state in mediums actually causes excessive sympathetic activation.
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Anomalistic (OBEs & NDEs): Bunning & Blanke (2005)
“The perception of an additionally body arises neurologically in a similar way to phantom limb syndrome in some amputees.”
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Anomalistic (OBEs & NDEs): Blackmore (2007)
Praised Ehrsson et al’s study for bringing OBE research into the lab, allowing theories to be tested in a controlled way.
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Anomalistic (OBEs & NDEs): Ehrsson et al (2007)
Simulated OBEs using virtual reality goggles to con the brain into thinking the body was located elsewhere when their real body was touched. This suggests a mismatch between visual and tactile signals.
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Anomalistic (OBEs & NDEs): Jansen (1996)
Created NDEs using ketamine - suggests that NDEs are the by-produce of the high doses of drugs given during operations.
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Anomalistic (OBEs & NDEs): Greyson & Franklin (1981)
Showed that patients under the influence of painkillers are less likely to report NDEs, and if they do it tends to be less vivid.
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Anomalistic (OBEs & NDEs): Sabom (1998)
Measured body gases in people who had NDEs and found normal levels (inc. Oxygen) = NO ANOXIA, does not explain all NDEs?
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Biologist, proposed PHRENOLOGY; personality shown through bumps on the head.

Back

Anomalistic (Pseudoscience): Francois Magendie (1843)

Card 3

Front

“Not our houses, but our brains are haunted”

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

“pseudoscience provides easy answers that are desirable, managing to dodge scrutiny due pandering to the gullible on issues that fulfil emotional needs that science can’t.” – People want to believe!

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Suggest that true scientists have much more to gain from the rewards and face less scrutiny than psychic phenomena do (you get fraud in all areas of psychology).

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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