Anomalistic psychology

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Macro psychokinesis (definition)
The movement of objects by intention alone where the movement can clearly be seen, including spoon-bending or moving an object across a table without touching it
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Micro psychokinesis (definition)
The influincing of objects on a sub-atomic scale; it involves the manipulation of chance.
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Radin and Ferrari (micro PK)
Meta analysis of 128 dice throwing studies. 2500 ppts. 2.5 million dice throws. 50.02% hit rate when no one was trying to control the dice. 51.2% hit rate when someone was trying to control the dice. Large sample means difference is significant.
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Outline the ganzfeld procedure.
Tests people with ESP. A reciever is placed in a room in a comfy chair with halved pingpong balls over their eyes and a red light shone on them and white noise. Sensory deprivation. Sender tried to send a randomly chosen target through thoughts.
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Occum's razor.
The principle of simplicity- if there are two competeing explanations then, all other things being equal, the simpler one is to be preferred.
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Aspects of psuedoscience.
Aims to confirm rather than respute it's own theories. Uses complex scientific jargon with no real meaning. Avoids peer review. Fails to build on or connect with existing scientific knowledge- so progress is impossible.
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Coincidence can lead to superstition.
When two events occur together people may assume that one event has caused the other; this is a false belief that we have that the events are related when in fact they are not,
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Superstition and operant conditioning.
If you wear a particular bracelet, for example, when you do an exam and you perform well in the exam, you have been positively reinforced that the bracelet is "lucky".
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Skinner (1947) (superstition)
Skinner put a very hungry pigeon in a box and then fed it. Over time they carried out odd behaviour. e.g one pigeon turned anti-clockwise which would appear particularly ritualistic before the arrival of food. The behaviour was reeinforced by food.
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Magical thinking.
Believing that one event happens as a result of another without a plausible link of causation.
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Cognitive Defecit Hypothesis (magical thinking)
Irwin suggested that people who engage in magical thinking are illogical, irrational, credulou, uncritical and foolish. People engage in magical thinking because they do not have the neccesary cognitive abilities to engage in rational thinking.
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Psychodynamic Functions Hypothesis. (magical thinking)
People see life as chaotic and unpredictable, so they use magical thinking as a means of finding a sense of control in their life.
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the law of contagion (magical thinking)
"once in contact, always in contact" there is a tendency to believe that there can be a permanent tranfer of properties via and "essence"
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Dudley (1999) (magical thinking)
Students either had to attempt solvable or unsolvable anagrams. Thosie in the unsolvable condition were unaware that the anagrams were unsolvable. The students in the insolvable group increased their level of superstitious thinking.
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A hidden cause (coincidence)
E.g you are at a party with an old friend and you suddenly think of a mutual friend you have not seen for ages and your friend does the same thing. You are not psychic- you probably saw a cue that reminded both of you of the friend.
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Multiple end points (coincidence)
E.g someone sharing your exact birthday is a close match, but someone born on a day near you or on the same day may also count as a coincidnece. by counting multiple end points, it's much more likely coincidences will happen to us.
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The law of truly large numbers (coincidence)
If enough opportunities exist, even very unlikely coincidences will occur. for instance, billions of dreams happen every night, so chances are at least one dream will "predict" what will happen in the future.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The influincing of objects on a sub-atomic scale; it involves the manipulation of chance.

Back

Micro psychokinesis (definition)

Card 3

Front

Meta analysis of 128 dice throwing studies. 2500 ppts. 2.5 million dice throws. 50.02% hit rate when no one was trying to control the dice. 51.2% hit rate when someone was trying to control the dice. Large sample means difference is significant.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Tests people with ESP. A reciever is placed in a room in a comfy chair with halved pingpong balls over their eyes and a red light shone on them and white noise. Sensory deprivation. Sender tried to send a randomly chosen target through thoughts.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The principle of simplicity- if there are two competeing explanations then, all other things being equal, the simpler one is to be preferred.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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