Anomalistic case studies

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: 8cburton
  • Created on: 12-05-15 11:58
Ganzfield studies- Honorton
23 out of 40 studies had a hit rate higher than 25%
1 of 33
Ganzfield studies- Milton and Wiseman
Carried out a meta-analysis of 30 studies involving 1198 trails and found no hit rate greater than 25%
2 of 33
Ganzfield studies- Bem and Honorton
meta-analysis and found individual differences between hit rates in receivers who were believers and those not believers
3 of 33
4 methodological issues with Ganzfield experiments
Sensory leakage, non-randomization of target, Procedures vary and Problems with the statistical analysis
4 of 33
Methodological issue with macro PK
Never been convincingly demonstrated under controlled conditions, some exposed as frauds, some claim the lab inhibits their powers
5 of 33
Methodological issue with micro PK- Radin and Ferrari
Meta-analysis of 128 dice throwing studies found 50.2% hit rate in control studies and 51.2% hit rate in experimental studies with PK. This small difference with large sample
6 of 33
Methodological issue with micro PK- Bosch et al
Using a random number generator found very small but statistical significant effect support PK.
7 of 33
Methodological issue with micro PK- Bosch et al
Commented on publication bias
8 of 33
Coincidence
Diaconis and Mosteller
9 of 33
Probability judgements- Blackmore
Questionnaire in the Daily Telegraph, 10 statements- say which ones were true for oneself and estimate how many true for stranger. Mean score for oneself was 2.4 and 3.6 for estimation for stranger
10 of 33
Probability misjudgement hypothesis- Blackmore
Asked her participants who were believers in the paranormal and found no significant difference between believers and non-believers
11 of 33
Probability misjudgement hypothesis- Musch and Ehrenberg
Found correlation with beliefs and probability judgements. However when general cognitive ability was taken into consideration the correlation disappeared.
12 of 33
2 explanations of superstitious behaviour
Operant conditioning and psychodynamic functions hypothesis
13 of 33
Evaluation of superstition explanations- Skinner
Hungry pigeons in a box carried out odd behaviour that seemed ritualised before feeding suggesting the food was reinforcing the behaviour (operant conditioning). Later research failed to replicate findings + pigeons show strange behaviours anyway
14 of 33
Evaluation of superstitious explanations- Maute
Experiment in the library, computer makes loud noises and stops making the nose once people have pressed many buttons. When the noise comes back on they try the same buttons so the superstitious behaviour has been learnt by negative reinforcement
15 of 33
Evaluation of superstitious explanations- Cultural
UK lucky number is 7 while Thailands is 9 showing difference in paranormal beliefs one country to another
16 of 33
Psychodynamic functioning hypothesis to magical thinking- Dudley
Students had solvable or non solvable anagrams. Non solvable group became more superstitious
17 of 33
Psychodynamic functioning hypothesis to magical thinking- Keinan
Found residents in areas under threat from military action during the gulf war scored higher on measures of magical thinking than those in areas not threatened
18 of 33
Cognitive deficits hypothesis to magical thinking- Lindeman and Saher
1000 volunteers from Finland completed a superstitious questionnaire. The researchers concluded the superstitious participants displayed child like reasoning and have immature thinking process
19 of 33
Neuroticism- William et al
293 participants from welsh state school volunteered. Significant correlation between neurotism and paranormal beliefs (+0.32). Also 52.7% believed in ghosts and 40.8% believed in horoscopes
20 of 33
Neuroticism- Wiseman and watt
4339 were tested for neuroticism by a 5 point scale to the statement 'I tend to worry about life'. This was then correlated with a test of paranormal beliefs. Positive correlation
21 of 33
Creativity- Gianotti et al
Participants think up words that can meaningfully connect two others. Found positive correlation between originality of the words and paranormal beliefs.
22 of 33
Psychic healing- Lyvers et al
Volunteer sample 20 with chronic back pain randomly assigned to control/experimental. No significant difference between groups receiving healing or placebo.
23 of 33
psychic healing - Kreiger
Higher haemoglobin levels (even a year on) in the group who received healing from Oscar Estabany than in the control group who thought they had received healing.
24 of 33
psychic healing- Keller et al
Single blind study, 60 participants, tension headaches, randomly assigned to therapeutic touch or placebo. Therapeutic touch group found significant improvement.
25 of 33
OBE- Blanke et al
electrically stimulated the brain of an epileptic- sense of floating. When normal people stimulated by transcranial magnetic stimulation patients had difficulties with perception of own body. Only had difficulties when the right TPJ stimulated
26 of 33
OBE- Ehrsson
Pair of video displays over eyes with live recoding of 2 metres behind them. Experimenter prods chest of participant and they felt it in their illusionary body and reacted to threats by sweating
27 of 33
NDE- Ring
Semi structured interviews of 102 people with NDE. They identified deep peace, separation with body, darkness, tunnels, entering the light/ beautiful garden
28 of 33
NDE- Jansen
Effect of NDE induced by ketamine as it triggers the same blockage in the brain as glutamate does. Supports the hypoxia explanation
29 of 33
NDE- Augustine
Reviewed cases of NDE in different cultures and found similarities/ differences. In India they had encounters with Hindu figures and in Japan there was a lack of light (phenomena reported in the west)
30 of 33
Psychic mediumship- Newberg et al
5 expert 5 non-expert Brazilian mediums. Brain scanned and found expert mediums had lower activity in their left hippocampus + less activity in their frontal lobe compared it non- expert mediums. offers some support of brain activity in trance state
31 of 33
Psychic mediumship- Schwartz et al
5 mediums on TV. (2 +40 women with recent deaths) were sitters. They judged the accuracy of readings 83% and 77%. The control group was undergraduates who rated the same statements 36% accurate suggesting the readers were good
32 of 33
Psychic mediumship- O'keeffe and Wiseman
Carried out replicate of Schwartz study with improved methodology and found no evidence for mediumship. Actually found the lowest accuracy for the statements that were read specifically for someone than the general ones.
33 of 33

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Carried out a meta-analysis of 30 studies involving 1198 trails and found no hit rate greater than 25%

Back

Ganzfield studies- Milton and Wiseman

Card 3

Front

meta-analysis and found individual differences between hit rates in receivers who were believers and those not believers

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Sensory leakage, non-randomization of target, Procedures vary and Problems with the statistical analysis

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Never been convincingly demonstrated under controlled conditions, some exposed as frauds, some claim the lab inhibits their powers

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Anomalistic psychology resources »