Animal Responses

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Can you label the structure of the brain?
If yes, draw on a piece of paper
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What is the function of the cerebrum?
Conscious thought, emotional response, reflex ovverride, intellegent decision making e.g. reasoning and judgement
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What is the function of the cerebellum?
Co ordination of movement and posture
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What is the function of the medulla oblongata?
Controls action of smooth muscle in gut wall, breathing movements and heart rate (Cardiac and respiratory centre)
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What is the function of the hypothalamus?
Control of the autonomic system and endocrine glands. Controls most of body's homeostatic mechanisms
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Why do animals need to respond to their environment?
To stay alive and survive long enough to reproduce
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Outline the organisation of the nervous system
Nervous system: Peripheral|Central> Peripheral: Somatic|Autonomic> Autonomic: Sympathetic|Parasympayhetic
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Outline the organisation and roles of the autonomic nervous system
Involuntary control. CNS> Cariac, and Smooth muscle, and to glands. Homeostatic mechanisms.Non myelinated neurones, Ganglion at effectors where 2 neurones join, 2 types of motor neurone: Symathetic and parasympathetic
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What is the role of the sympathetic subsystem?
Most active in times of stress. Pre ganglion neurones are short. Noradrenaline secreted at synapse between neurone and effector at post ganglionic neurones. Increased heart rate, pupil dilation ******, breathing increase
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What is the role of the parasympathetic subsystem?
Most active in sleep and relaxation. Pre ganglionic neurones vary in length. Post ganglionic neurones secrete acetylcholine as neurotransmitter. Decreased heart rate, pupil constriction, decreased ventilation and sexual arousal
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How does coordinated movement require the action of skeletal muscles about joints?
Muscles must work antagonistically eg in the elbow, biceps and triceps.
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How does the neuromuscular Junction work?
1)Impulse arrives at neuromuscular junction. Vesicles fuse with presynaptic membrane releasing acetylcholine into gap.2 ACh binds to receptors on muscle sarcolemma-depolarisation.3 Wave of depolarisation travels down tubules t system.
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How does the neuromuscular Junction work? Part 2
4. T system depolarisation leads to Ca2+ release . 5. Ca2+ binds to protein in muscles causing contraction. 6.Acetylcholine ingap broken down by acetylcholinestarase so contraction occurs when impulses arrive continuously
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What are the similarities and differences between the action of synapses and the neuromuscular junction?
Similar structure and operation as impulses travel over both. Neromuscular-Occurs at end of motor neurone to meet muscle fiber. Greater contraction by more stimulaed motor units= gradation of response
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What are the three types of muscle?
Involuntary(Smooth), Cardiac muscle, and voluntary (striated and skeletal muscle)
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Describe involuntary muscle
Unstriated- Spindle shaped-found in walls of tubular structures eg gut, blood vessels and ducts- Controlled by autonomic
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Describe cardiac muscle
Semi striated- Cylindrical cells- Only in heart-Controlled by autonomic system- Contracts spontaneously without fatigue
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Describe voluntary muscle
Striated- Cylyndrical cells are multinucleate- Found attached to to bone
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What is the role of ATP in muscular contraction and how is it maintained
Energy to break cross bridge and reset myosin head. Formed via aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
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Explain the sliding filament model/ label the sarcomere
Myosin head attach to actin filaments(crossbridge). Head bends causing thin filament to be pulled and overlap with thick(Power stroke) ADP+Pi released. New ATP attaches to myosin head cross bridge breaks. Head moves back as ATP hydrolysed c.b
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How are responses to environmental stimuli co ordinated?
By Nervous and endocrine systems
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What are some physiological changes involved in the fight or flight response?
Pupils dilate- Heart rate increases-arterioles to digestive system and skin constrict-blood glucose levels increas-metabolic rate increases- sweat production increases
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How are the nervous and endocrine systems involved in the fight or flight response?
Hypothalamus- sympathetic-adrenal medulla- nor and adrenaline- bloodstream to combine with hormones. Pituitary Gland ACTH releasing 30 hormones to bloodstream
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Card 2

Front

What is the function of the cerebrum?

Back

Conscious thought, emotional response, reflex ovverride, intellegent decision making e.g. reasoning and judgement

Card 3

Front

What is the function of the cerebellum?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the function of the medulla oblongata?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the function of the hypothalamus?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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