Animal Learning and Cognition (7)

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What is deductive reasoning?
The conclusion necessarily follows from the premises set out
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What is an example of deductive reasoning?
All ice is cold. This is ice. You would deduce that the ice is cold
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What is inductive reasoning?
The conclusion is likely to follow from the premises, and even though the assumption may be reasonable, it is not necessarily correct
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What is an example of inductive reasoning?
This ice is cold. You may induce from this that all ice is cold. (reasonable, but not necessarily correct)
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Why is navigation argued as an example of deductive reasoning?
There is an answer to the problem and the evidence around you necessitates the answer
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What are the three ways in which animals navigate?
Dead reckoning aka path integration, piloting and cognitive maps
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What is dead reckoning?
Determining your location by using a previously determined position (e.g. ants nest) and updating that position based on speeds and direction
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How do we know desert ants are using path integration and not pheromone trails or learned responses
because they don't follow the same trail home, then run directly to the nest
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How do desert ants determine their direction?
the position of the sun in the sky
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How do desert ants determine distance?
An internal pedometer mechanism (putting stilts on their legs makes them overestimate the distance)
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What is piloting?
using visual features in the environment to navigate
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Who coined the term cognitive map and what is it?
Tolman. It is piloting, but with all the objects in the environment
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How did Morris 1981 demonstrate instantaneous transfer in rats?
After being trained to swim to a fixed platform in the morris maze, they will swim directly to it when released from a new location
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How did Morris explain instantaneous transfer?
He said that used a cognitive map based on environmental stimuli, not trial and error learning
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(Kohler 1925) What is Sultan using a short stick to reach for a long stick an example of, and what does it suggest?
Example of insight. Suggests that novel behaviour depends on experience, as this only happens for chimpanzees that have experience with using the sticks
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How did Epstein et al 1984 demonstrate the role of experience in behaviour?
Only pigeons who had experience with boxes used them to stand on to peck for food
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How many trials did it take for caledonian crows to use a wire to get food out of a bottle? (Weir, Chappell & Kacelnik 2002)
7 trials ... but they do this in the wild, she was an adult so had experience in the wild and with wire
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Can animals solve problem without trial and error?
yes, but it's not clear how they solve problems
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Card 2

Front

What is an example of deductive reasoning?

Back

All ice is cold. This is ice. You would deduce that the ice is cold

Card 3

Front

What is inductive reasoning?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is an example of inductive reasoning?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why is navigation argued as an example of deductive reasoning?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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