Animal Learning and Cognition (3)

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Banks and Flora (1977) asked people to rate the intelligence of different animals, what might they have based these judgements on?
Appearance, Evolution, Brain size
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How did Romanes view intelligence?
within the ideas of natural selection, but also had quite a superficial and linear view of it
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What is the cephalisation index and who came up with it?
A ratio of brain weight to body weight (Jerison 1973)
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What two correlations did Jerison find based on the cephalisation index?
Lower vertebrates (reptiles, amphibians, fish) and higher vertebrates (mammals)
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What was Anaxagoras' view of intelligence?
Animals all have an equal amount of 'nous' but differ in the extent to which they can express it
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What was Macphail's idea of intelligence?
Similar, there is no good evidence (excluding humans) that animals differ in their intelligence. Need experimental evidence, can't rely on ranking, brain weight, or evolution as evidence of intelligence
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What is learning?
A relatively permanent change in behaviour that results from experience
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What is operant/instrumental conditioning?
when an animals has to make a particular response to gain the outcome
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What is Pavlovian/classical conditioning?
A stimulus indicates that food is coming
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What is the problem with using speed of learning as a measure of intelligence?
unexpected between species differences, within species differences, differences in perception, motivation and biological relevance
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Wha did Garcia & Koelling (1996) find about rats and motivation?
Only some stimuli were biologically relevant. They were prepared to relate taste and illness but not external stimuli and illness
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What is the overall modern view of animal intelligence?
It is a consequence of information processing, which is based on a variety of cognitive processed such as memory
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As recollection is subjective and difficult to measure in animals, what is memory defined as?
when current behaviour is under the influence of past experience
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What is periodic time?
things that occur regularly every 24 hours (circadian clock)
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What is interval time?
Short periods of time between event and the ability to time them
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Who was Clever Hans trained and tested by?
Trained by Von Osten and tested by Pfungst (1908)
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How did Romanes view intelligence?

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within the ideas of natural selection, but also had quite a superficial and linear view of it

Card 3

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What is the cephalisation index and who came up with it?

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Card 4

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What two correlations did Jerison find based on the cephalisation index?

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Card 5

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What was Anaxagoras' view of intelligence?

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