Angevin Kings

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Who supported Matilda during the civil war with Stephen of Blois from 1139 until his death in 1147?
Robert of Gloucester
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What was the name of the battle at which Stephen was captured?
The Battle of Lincoln
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What does the term Tempus Werre stand for?
The period of civil war under the reign of King Stephen
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What was the name of the treaty signed in 1153 that saw Henry named as Stephens heir?
The Treaty of Winchester
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In what year was Henry crowned as King of England?
19th December 1154
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How many illegal castles had been built by Barons during the civil war between Stephen and Matilda?
375
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Which barons opposed Henrys decisions to remove and destroy illegally built castles?
The Earl of Hereford, William Duke of York and Hugh Mortimer (castles in Cleobury and Bridgnorth, came under siege from Henry)
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Why did Henry expel Flemish mercenaries that had been hired by Stephen and Matilda during the civil war?
They hadn't been paid and were threatening to cause civil unrest and revolt, by removing them Henry increased public support
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For how long was Henry absent whilst king of England?
Two thirds of his reign were spent abroad
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Who were the two great Welsh leaders upon Henrys ascension to the throne and why did he face early opposition from them?
Owain of Gwynedd and Rhys ap Thomas, both of whom enjoyed greater power and control under Henry I
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In which years did Henry carry out expeditions to Wales with mixed results?
1157, 1163 and 1165
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Henry appointed Rhys ap Thomas to which role?
Justiciar of all of Deheubarth
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In which year did Henry finally successfully restore England's borders to that of 1136?
1157
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In recognition for his decision to respect Henrys military might, Malcolm IV of Scotland was awarded which county?
Northamptonshire
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Who did Henry II leave in charge of the country as his Chief Justiciars during his periods abroad?
Robert of Leicester and Richard de Luci
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In which year did Henry change the coinage?
1154 and then again in 1180 as the original reform was not as successful. The decision to implement a new coinage system was designed to provoke feelings of public support as the new system would prove to be more stable.
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In which year did the inquest of the sheriffs take place?
1170, it was set up to investigate malpractice in local government. Payments made by powerful figures such as Archbishops were also investigated. By the end of the investigation almost all of the sheriffs had been replaced with civil servants.
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In which year was the Cartae Baronum?
1166
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What was the aim of the Cartae Baronum?
To restore royal lands (purprestures and eshceats), Barons also had to inform the King of how much land they had given knights and to update the rents of existing properties and provide knights to the royal army
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In which year was the Constitutions of Clarendon enforced?
1164
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What were the aims of the Constitutions of Clarendon?
16 individual aims that were designed to reduce ecclesiastical power and reduce the levels of authority that the papacy had in England. Henry wanted to achieve this by restoring judicial power.
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What were the aims of the Constitutions of Clarendon?
Ensure that clerks were no longer tried in ecclesiastical courts where they would received more lenient sentences but were charged and tried in secular and royal courts. This meant they no longer had clerical immunity.
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Who famously opposed the Constitutions of Clarendon?
Thomas Becket
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In which year was the Assize of Clarendon?
1166
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What was the aim of the Assize of Clarendon?
The main aim was to transform English law by establishing a grand jury system for investigation crimes. All accused had to testify under oath.
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In which year was the Novel Disseisin?
1176
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What was the aim of the Novel Disseisin?
Put in place to settle legal claims over disputed land following the Norman invasion of 1066. All freedman could sue the royal court to recover seisin (feudal possession). A writ had to be purchased and then a trial followed
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In which year was the Mort d'ancestor and what were its aims?
1176, Legal action that would settle land disputes based on inheritance. The trial was used to decide if the person was in fact the heir to the person in question and if they owned the land at the time of death. Sorted externally through fines.
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In what year was the Grand Assize?
1179
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What was the aim of the Grand Assize?
To move away from trial by Duel and replace it with jury system made up of 12 knights. The Grand Assize was a serious affair and only took place in the royal courts. It was used to settle disputes over property.
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In what year was the Assize of Northampton?
1176
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What was the aim of the Assize of Northampton?
It was a revised version of the Assize of Clarendon (1166). It solidified the rights of knightly tenants and also made all possession of land subject to and guaranteed by royal law. It protected the rights of heirs and widows.
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In what year was the Assize of Arms?
1181
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What was the aim of the Assize of Arms?
To ensure all freemen kept arms and be prepared to defend there country in the name of King and swear allegiance to the King. It prevented Jews from taking up arms and also prohibited the export of weapons
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Under which Archbishop of Canterbury did Thomas Becket serve?
Theobold of Bec
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In what year was Becket appointed Chancellor?
1154
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Why was Becket appointed Archbishop?
Henry wanted someone in control of the church who could serve him and ensure all of the churches actions were in the Kings best interest by securing control of the church for the King
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In which year was Becket appointed Archbishop of Canterbury?
1162
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In what year was Becket murdered in Canterbury Cathedral?
December 1170
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In what year was the Compromise of Avranches?
1172
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What were the outcomes of the Compromise of Avranches?
Henry kept power to appoint Bishops. Henry had to supply 200 knights for 1 year in defence of the holy land. Constitutions of Clarendon were revoked. Possessions return to Canterbury Cathedral. Henry had to pay private penance.
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In which year did Henry pay penance to Beckets shrine?
1174
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What 'miracle' occurred following Henrys penance?
William King of Scots was captured at the Battle of Alnwick by Ranulf de Glanvill in July of 1174.
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In which year was Becket canonised?
1173
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In which years did the rebellion happen?
1173-1174
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Henry the Younger had support from who?
Louis VII King of France, The Count of Flanders, The Count of Blois and the Count of Boulogne
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Where did rebellions take place within England?
Chester, Leicester and Norfolk
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Reasons for the rebellion?
Eleanor manipulated her sons, Henrys sons had no real power especially Henry the younger. Anger at the fact john had received 3 major castles in Anjou as part of a marriage agreement.
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Which baron played a large role in the rebellion of 1173-74?
Hugh Bigod as he wanted to regain feudal power
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In which year was Eleanor captured following her attempted escape to the French court of her former husband Louis VII?
November 1173
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For how many years was Eleanor imprisoned?
16 years
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Who was in charge of looking after Eleanor of Aquitaine during her period of imprisonment?
Ralph Fitzstephen at Winchester Castle
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Who became Henrys vassal in Ireland?
The king of Connaught
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Who became Henrys vassal in Ireland in 1185?
John
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Which territories did Henry lose to Philip in the latter years of his reign?
Maine, Touraine and Anjou
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In which year did Henry give up the territory of Anjou?
1187
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What was the Treaty of Azay?
It saw Henry II remove his rights to the territory of Auvergne in 1189, it came about as the direct result of the poor relationship between Richard and Henry. It proved to be a foolish move as Henry died two days later and he inherited the empire
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In which year did Henry II die?
6th July 1189
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In which year did Henry the Younger die?
11th June 1183 (dysentry)
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In which year did Geoffrey die?
19th August 1186 (tournament)
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How many months of his 10 year reign did Richard spend in England?
6 months
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In which year did Richard take the throne?
6th July 1189
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How did Ibn-al-Athir praise Richard?
'His quality made him the most remarkable ruler of his time'
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How did Robert of Wendover describe Richard?
He described Richard as the most 'pious, victorious, merciful and wise king'
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How much did Richard raise to fund the Third Crusade?
£31,089
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How did Richard raise the Crusade funds?
Sold Scotland for £6000 (Quit-claim of Canterbury), Sold titles to the higher bidders such as the Bishop of Winchester (£3,000 for 2 manor in Hampshire), removed sheriffs from power to save money (by 1189 only 5 of 27 remained)
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What was the Saladin Tithe?
A tax/tallage enforced by Richard in response to Saladin's occupation of Jerusalem in 1187. It saw 10% of revenues and moveable wealth pledged towards the conflict.
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Who replaced William Longchamp as Chief Justiciar?
Walter Coutances
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What was the name of German Emperor who drowned in Asia minor in June 1190?
Fredrick
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How much did Richard spend on ships to transport him and his troops through the Mediterranean?
£5,000
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Which two famous victories did Richard record whilst on crusade?
Jaffa and Acre
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In what year did Saladin and Richard agree the Peace Treaty of Ramla signed?
June 1192
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What two things did the treaty enable christians to do?
Pilgrimage to Jerusalem safely and also trade in the Holy Land.
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In which year did John try to raise rebellion against Richard?
1192-1193
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Who quashed Johns rebellion?
Eleanor of Aquitaine and Walter Coutances
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Which castle did Richard lose to Philip and John?
Gisors
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Why did Johns rebellion fail?
The 'Quit-Claim" ensured that the Scots remained loyal, Barons were persuaded to remain loyal by Walter and Eleanor and the only support John gained was that of some minor Welsh lords and Flemish Mercenaries
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In which year was Richard captured by Leopold V, Duke of Austria?
Christmas 1192
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Where was Richard kept Prisoner?
Durnstein Castle
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Who was Richard later handed over to?
Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor
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How much was Richards ransom?
150,000 marks
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How much was the Jewish community forced to contribute to the ransom?
£2,000
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How was the Money raised?
Through Scutage and Carucage
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What was Scutage?
It was a form of taxation that allowed a knight to buy out of military service to the crown. It is also known as shield tax.
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What was Carucage?
A tax introduced to English feudal law based on the size of the land owned by a baron or knight making it more precise to the property of each individual
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When was Richard released?
4th February 1194
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In which year did Richard build Chateau-Gaillard (Saucy Castle)?
1196
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How much did the Saucy Castle cost to build?
£12,000
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How much did Richard spend on English castles during his entire reign?
£7,000
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Richard successfully agreed alliances with which two major figures?
Count Raymond VI of Toulouse (1196) and The Count of Flanders (1197)
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Which two men had been Richards enemies since 1176?
The Viscount of Limoges and The Count of Angouleme
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In which year did Richard die?
6th April 1199
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When was the York Pogrom?
16th-17th March 1190
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What was the name of the Rabbi present at Clifford Tower?
Rabbi Yomtov of Joigney
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Who was the ringleader of the York Pogrom?
Richard Malebisse, he owed large amounts to Jewish moneylenders so burnt all of the legal documents highlighting his debts in the Cathedral of York
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Where else did Jewish massacres occur?
Stamford Fair and Bury St Edmunds (57 Jews killed)
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In what year was the Ordinance of the Jews commissioned?
1194
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What were the aims of the Ordinance of the Jews?
It made every debt to the Jewish moneylenders a debt to the crown. Offered protection for Jewish moneylenders and also ensured a written record of every debt was recorded.
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What were the names of the two main Christian money lenders?
Lombardy and Cahors
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Who was the wealthiest member of the Jewish community?
Aaron of Lincoln, following his death in 1186 an exchequer had to be set up due to his wealth and the amount of money that was owed to him
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Why was warfare so expensive?
Castles were built of stone and could withstand sieges for many months, siege machinery was need edit mount efficient sieges and soldiers were know hired professionals who commanded high wages
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Who did Richard leave in control of the country whilst he went on Crusade?
Hugh De Puiset and William Longchamp
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Which areas of the country did the two co-justiciars control in March 1190
De Puiset controlled all land north of the River Humber and Longchamp controlled all land south of the River Humber
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Who did Longchamp violently arrest in Dover?
Geoffrey archbishop of York as he had not sworn fealty to Richard
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Who acted as Richards chief negotiator with Saladin for the Treaty of Ramla?
Hubert Walter
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In which year was Walter appointed Archbishop of Canterbury and Chief Justiciar?
1193
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Which castle did Walter lay siege to in an attempt to defeat the rebellion?
Marlborough Castle
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What key actions did Walter carry out?
Set up a group of professional royal justiciars chosen for their ability, successfully dealt with Rhys ap Gruffudd after fears he would rebel due to Roger Mortimer's encroachment, quelled a rebellion led by William FitzOsbourne and raised money
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Who did Walter investigate for Ecclesiastical misconduct?
Robert of Thorney abbey in 1195 and also the monks of Worcester cathedral
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Who was Johns rival to the English throne?
Arthur of Brittany, son of his late brother Geoffrey
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Why did Eleanor pay homage to Philip for her lands?
Ensured that he couldn't interfere and invade her lands as they were hers by right rather than Johns, she named john her heir however for the pact to stay in place he would have to repay homage
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Who did John marry in 1200?
Isabelle of Angouleme, he had to divorce Isabelle of Gloucester (kept control of her lands)
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Which leading Baron was she already betrothed to and technically married to?
Hugh de Lusignan
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In which year was Mirebeau Castle under siege from Arthur and Hugh de Lusignan?
1202
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How far did John march in 24 hours to reach the besieged castle?
80 miles (Le Mans to Poitou)
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Who did John capture?
Arthur of Brittany and also Hugh de Lusignan
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How many prisoners died in his care?
22
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Who switched sides as a result of these atrocious actions?
William de Roches, Seneschal of Anjou
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In which year did John murder Arthur?
Easter 1203, stabbed him to death then stoned the body and dumped the body in the River Seine.
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In which year did John lose control of Aquitaine?
In 1204 following the death of his mother Eleanor of Aquitaine
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In which year did the super fortress Chateau Gaillard fall?
1204
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What are John Gillingham's estimates at Royal revenue for both France and England?
France - £51,000-£72,0000 and England - £63,000-£77,000, he also argues that John had the income of Aquitaine and also Anjou
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How long did the interdict go on for?
1208-1213 however relations between John and the pope had been deteriorating since 1205
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Who did John try to appoint as Archbishop of Canterbury after finding out the monks had appointed Reginald?
John de Gray
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How was John benefiting form the interdict?
He was gaining revenue from 7 vacant Bishoprics and 13 vacant Abbacies
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In which year did John 'surrender'?
1212
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How much did John have to pay annually to the pope after becoming his vassal?
£666
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In which year did John attempt to retake Poitou?
1206
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Why did John have to employ Poitivan mercenaries with whom he managed to occupy Gascony?
English barons refused to provide troops to fight abroad in anger against the continuous heavy taxation
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Which areas did John regain control of as part of the peace treaty?
Poitou to the Pyrenees
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Who joined the Foreign Alliance?
The Counts of Flanders and Boulogne, Otto the Holy Roman Emperor, Duke of Brabant and Ferdinand of Portugal
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In which year was the Battle of Bouvines?
1214
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Who led the small English contingent?
William, earl of Salisbury (longspear)
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Who was captured by Philip?
Count of Flanders and Reginald of Boulogne (survived a stand off using 600 Brabant pikemen who used a schiltrom)
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Give 6 factors that led to the Baronial Crisis of 1214-1217?
Royal lack of money, interference in royal reforms (Henry II), nature of the the English ruling classes, failed attempts to regain control of Normandy, Johns personality and the Angevin financial crisis of 1180-1220
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How much did inflation rise by between 1180-1220?
100-200%
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An example of johns lustfulness towards his barons wives?
The wife of Hugh de Burgh
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Where did the rebel barons come from?
The North, Essex and East Anglia and also the West
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Who was appointed the leader of the Rebel Barons?
Robert FitzWalter
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Name 4 other rebel barons?
Eustace de Vesci, Roger Bigod earl of Norfolk, Geoffrey de Mandville and Earl Broase bishop of Hereford
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By 1215 how many rebel barons were there?
39
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Where do the barons initially meet?
Bury St Edmunds
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Who are the chief negotiators for John?
William Marshall and Stephen Langton
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Where did negotiations take place?
Runnymede
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When was the Charter of Barons/Magna Carta signed?
19th June 1215
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Who wrote up the terms and why was this significant?
Members of the royal court including Stephen Langton, Henry Archbishop of Dublin and Peter de Roches bishop of Winchester. No rebel barons or representatives were present
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How many clauses were in the Magna Carta, and which 5 key areas did they cover?
63, The protection of the rights of the church, the protection of the rights of freemen, feudal concerns of barons were all adhered to, the administration of justice was protected and that John stuck to all of the promises
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Name other key areas that were targeted?
The expansion of royal forests, as a result they were reduced to the size of the before Johns reign, scutage and tax rates were fixed and profits from debts and debts in general were regulated
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What was the name of the only Bishop to join the rebel Barons?
Giles de Braose
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Who launched an invasion in May 1216?
Louis VIII, he had the support of Alexander II the king of Scots
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In which year did John die?
1219 at the age of 49, he left his son Henry III as his heir
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Why was Magna Carta a failure?
The terms were unjust and unrealistic, the barons appointed to share responsibility with the king were not moderate men and the Pope described the charter as illegal and excommunicated the 'disturber'
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How much was owed to Aaron of Lincoln?
£18,466 by just under 400 debtors
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How much money did Hubert Walter raise?
1,100,000 marks
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Which council prevented the Christians from carrying out usery?
III Lateran Council of 1179
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Card 2

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What was the name of the battle at which Stephen was captured?

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The Battle of Lincoln

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What does the term Tempus Werre stand for?

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What was the name of the treaty signed in 1153 that saw Henry named as Stephens heir?

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In what year was Henry crowned as King of England?

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