Ancient practice help me please dear god!

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When did Gaius become emperor?
- Gaius became emperor after death of Tiberius in 37AD and Agrippina is still married to Ahenobarbus
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Detail the rise to prominence by Gaius
Through honours o Vestal Virgins o Seats next to emperor at the games o Named in annual vows of allegiance and emperors safety o Put onto coins with other sisters, representing Concordia, fortuna and securitas
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Outline the change in Giaus attitude
- Gaius suffered a serious illness in 37-38AD, which impacted his mental state also allegedly a coup attempt - Conspiracy emerges in which Agrippina, Livilla had adultery with Lepidus and were planning to overthrow Gaius – Plot of three daggers
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Outline results of failed coup (Gaius)
- Lepidus was executed, Agrippina was forced to carry remains back to Rome from Germany - Agrippina banished from Rome to Pontiun islands until Gaius’ death in 41AD (
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Outline Agrippina's situation in the beginning of the reign of Claudius
- Beginning of Claudius’ reign, Agrippina was in exile and a widow - Married Crispus in 42 who died in 46 – possible poisoning from Agrippina - By 46 Agrippina was a wealthy widow and went to live in Claudius’ household as he was her oldest male rela
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Quote by who on Claudius
- “Reign marked a crucial turning point” Barrett, in Agrippina’s career
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Second quote on claudius
- She now began to entertain “An ambition that would dominate her future career – the elevation of her son to the role of princeps”
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How did Agrippina get married to Claudius?
- Agrippina used her feminine charm and her lineage and the loyalty of her freedmen Pallas to seduce Claudius – Laws had to be changed in senate to allow marriage to happen between uncle and niece
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What does she do once in power with Claudius?
- She had Claudius adopt Nero who was given prominence over Brittanicus according to Suetonius - Seneca and Burrus placed in high positions by Agrippina
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What awards was she given under Claudius
- In 50AD she was given the title Augusta, which was unprecedented - 51AD given carriage for personal use - Nero becomes emperor over Brittanicus
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Envolvment with the death of Claudius
- Ancient sources, Suetonius and Tacitus suggest that Agrippina was involved in Claudius’ death – The poison in the mushrooms
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The impact of Agrippina on the princeps in her family
Agrippina had a major influence over principes in her family. • Agrippina’s main role was legitimising the reigns of the principes o Reverse of Caligula’s sestertius, depicted as a goddess
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Agrippoinas influence over princeps
o Agrippina attempted a political rebellion with Lepidus against Caligula – Tacitus ♣ Tacitus’ only account of Agrippina’s influence over Caligula o By the start of Nero’s reign Agrippina was the most powerful person in Rome – Barrett
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Agrippina's impact on domestic and foreign affairs
• Often Agrippina had direct influence over the domestic affairs of Rome o Agrippina placed Burrus as the Praetorian prefect - Tacitus ♣ Clear influence over the imperial court and used cliens to influence domestic affairs
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Agrippina's impact over the governing of Rome’s provinces
o The strength of Agrippina’s influence can be gauged by the fact that she was able to affect events in the provinces as well as Rome – Barrett ♣ Judgement outlines the clear impact Agrippina had due to Ancient sources accounts of her influence on fa
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Agrippina's impact on imperial women
• Agrippina pushed the traditional boundaries of the role of women in Rome o Agrippina sponsored games in the Asia province – Barrett ♣ Corroborated by Tacitus account, unorthodox action for women in Roman society
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Agrippina's successes as a women
• Agrippina was influential and respected for actions during her time o Agrippina was the living first woman to be given the title Augusta – Suetonius ♣ Suetonius generally bases writing on gossip but the title was certainly given to her
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Archeological representations of Agrippina
• The main source of visual interpretations of Agrippina comes from sculptural evidence
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What is the sculptural evidence about Agrippina
o The Sebasteion at Aphrodisias provides images of Agrippina with Claudius, portraying them in concordia through handshake ♣ Debate over wether Claudius and Agrippina were partners in power. Also Sebasteion would have been commissioned to please Agri
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Descrive coin evidence
Numismatic evidence -o Reverse of sestertius during Caligula’s reign with sisters and on obverse of Aureus with Nero
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Why is Agrippina idolised on coins?
♣ Agrippina is usually idealised both physically and also in personality, shown with symbols such the cornucopia to symbolise positive traits • Agrippina featured on coins to legitimise the reigns of the princeps - Barrett
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Ancient interpretaisons on Agrippina - dio 1
• The interpretation of Agrippina by Dio Cassius provides an unremittingly negative representation Nothing seemed to be enough for Agrippina – Dio Cassius
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Ancient interpretaisons on Agrippina - did 2
♣ Dio Cassius places many of the stereotypes of women’s role in Rome on Agrippina, revealing a distinct sexist bias • Dio represents her as a transgressor of civil codes of behaviour - Keegan
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Ancient interpretaisons on Agrippina - Tacitus 1
• The interpretation of Agrippina by Tacitus is a far less biased representation, providing a more balanced account o Agrippina conducted herself as a partner in an empire acquired by her ancestors - Tacitus
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Ancient interpretaisons on Agrippina - Tacitus 2
♣ Still places Rome’s mores on her actions, but doesn’t condemn for breaking the traditional boundaries of women’s role • Tacitus figures Agrippina’s desire for power as an exhibition of female influence - Keegan
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Modern interpretaisons on Agrippina - Feminist 1
• The feminist interpretation of Agrippina poses a stark contrast to that of the ancient sources due to Roman mores concerning gender
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Modern interpretaisons on Agrippina - Feminist 2
o The ancient authors fitted Agrippina’s interpretation to rhetorical stereotypes of women of the literary tradition, such as the ‘wicked stepmother’ - Ginsburg Thus the feminist account of Agrippina disregards the sexist bias of ancient writers end
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Modern interpretaisons on Agrippina - Revisionist 1
• A less reactive modern interpretation is that of the revisionists which provides a more balanced representation of Agrippina o Complete truth about Agrippina may be unobtainable, but we deserve a version closest to the truth" Barrett
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Modern interpretaisons on Agrippina - Revisionist 2
♣ Revisionist interpretations analyse all evidence and account for bias without placing further bias like feminists • The record suggests both ancient and modern writers offer a lop-sided portrait – Barrett
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Death of Caesar body 1
Why he died – Becoming rex - Octavian came to Rome and received ¾ of Caesar’s estate - He gained loyalty of about half of the army - Caesars death left a power vacuum in Rome – politics were polarized at one extreme were the Republicans and caesars p
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Death of Caesar body 2
Role of Octavian - Avenge Caesar - Antony wouldn’t hand over army - They joined forces in the Second Triumvirate with Lepidus as well - Octavian sought to honour Caesar’s will and sold property and borrowed heavily to pay Rome’s veterans and citizens
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Death of Caesar body 3-1
Octavian’s rise to power - Greeted enthusiastically by Caesar’s veterans - Octavian got west, Antony got east, and Lepidus got bits of Spain. Antony got best but Octavian had Rome
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Death of Caesar body 3-2
- Octavian started spreading propaganda against Antony - Removal of political enemies through proscriptions in which 2000 people were killed including 300 senators (purges)
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Death of Caesar body 4
Final Showdown - Octavian beats Antony by blackening his reputation as a noble Roman by spreading rumours about him and Cleopatra - He defeats them in the Battle of Actium with the help of Agrippa - He established principate and took Egypt for funds
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Augustus and the Senate body 1
Body 1 – What the senate has become - After principate is made with the settlements of 27 and 23 the senate was incredibly weak and made up of his supporters after the purges - Senate still do administration and other small jobs
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Augustus and the Senate body 2-1
Body 2 – Senate reforms - Fundamental aim of Augustus was the restoration of the senate’s dignity o Senate membership reduced from 1000 to 800 o Augustus made princeps senatus – first in the senate o 18BC senate was reduced from 800 to 600
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Augustus and the Senate body 2-2
o Senator had to be worth at least 1 million sersterces, normally completed some military service and a man of high personal integrity Fines were introduced in 17 and 9BC for senator’s not attending
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Augustus and the Senate body 3-1
Passing of legislation - From 23BC Augustus could use his tribunica protestus to present bills to the people
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Augustus and the Senate body 3-2
- Augustus established “A drafting committee comprising himself, the consuls one from each college of magistrates and fifteen other senators chosen by lot” - This was called the consilium principles, augustus auctoritas meant he was in charge
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Role and Contribution of Agrippa body 1-1
Career up to Actium - Despite Octavian’s leadership in many areas he wasn’t a good military commander and had Agrippa as his right hand man and General - Agrippa was an excellent strategist especially at naval warfare
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Role and Contribution of Agrippa body 1-2
- He was incredibly trusted by Octavian and was studying with Octavian when news of Caesar’s assassination arrived - He came with Octavian and won the battle of Actium
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Role and Contribution of Agrippa body 2-1
– Consolidating Augustus’ power - Agrippa was made the praetor urbanus, which meant he was responsible for administration of justice Made co-consul in years 37, 33 and 27BC with Augustus in some
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Role and Contribution of Agrippa body 2-2
- Made co-consul in years 37, 33 and 27BC with Augustus in some - Particularly after Actium, Agrippa was as important to Augustus in a political role as he was in his military role
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Role and Contribution of Agrippa body 2-3
- He was aedile responsible for public works and helped Augustus propaganda image o Building programs ♣ Aqua Marcia, Public works and public exhibition of art ♣ Campus martius - “The emperor boasts that he found the city in bricks and leftitinmarbl
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Role and Contribution of Agrippa body 3
- Marriage to Marcella, Augustus’ niece in 27. - Forced to divorce and marry Julia, daughter of Augustus - Agrippa named heir to Augustus - Lost heirship when Lucius and Gaius were born
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Ancient quotes of Augustus
‘Raised an army by bribery’ Tacitus - War and judicial murders had disposed of all men of spirit’ Tacitus Well disciplined in obedience, but to one man alone’ Paterculus
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Modern quotes of Augustus 1
By this act Octavius displaced Antony as the people’s friend.” [W.C. More
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Modern quotes of Augustus 2
On the basis of a magniciaent lie (about Cleopatra) created belief turned the scale of history’ (Syme) Judge argues that ‘Augustus himself would have vehemently denied the charges that he had changed anything at all’
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Modern quotes of Augustus 3
‘Religious revival was a necessary part of the Augustan Republica if this was successfully to claim a close relationship with the Old Republica.’ [Shotter, Augustus Caesar]
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Detail the rise to prominence by Gaius

Back

Through honours o Vestal Virgins o Seats next to emperor at the games o Named in annual vows of allegiance and emperors safety o Put onto coins with other sisters, representing Concordia, fortuna and securitas

Card 3

Front

Outline the change in Giaus attitude

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Outline results of failed coup (Gaius)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Outline Agrippina's situation in the beginning of the reign of Claudius

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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