Ancient Egypt

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Who was the viser
The resultant problem is that there are not enough houses open to public viewing to match the numbers of tourists who enter on a daily basis.
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Viser responsabilités
included choosing who would see the king, supervised the treasury and all the pharaoh’s belongings, chief judge of justice, overseer of all scribes who rote on royal documents, received and sent dispatches to officials in provinces
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Viser responsabilités 2
controlled Nile’s traffic, overseer of two granaries and overseer of the two treasuries, financed and provided rations for his officials and manual workers on king’s projects, heard petitions from people who were unhappy with decisions of pharaoh’s c
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What is a nomarchy
Nomarches were the provincial governors and was the leading noble in their Nome. He was directly responsible to the vizier but due to the nomarchy’s distance from the capital of Memphis, he often wielded great power
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Nomarchs roles
Nomarches were the provincial governors and was the leading noble in their Nome. He was directly responsible to the vizier but due to the nomarchy’s distance from the capital of Memphis, he often wielded great power
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Scribes role
Since records were kept on all aspects of life, scribes were employed in every government department, temple and estate. They were responsible for measuring, inspecting, checking, rationing and recording. They were concerned with the administration o
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Memphis
Capital of Old Kingdom Egypt Lies between upper and lower Egypt Main God was Ptah Lies on the east bank of the Nile
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Dashshur
Part of the necropolis of Memphis Located south of Saqqara Has Sneferu’s “bent” pyramid and “northern” pyramid
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Giza
Part of the necropolis of Memphis Has many pyramids Has the Sphinx
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Abusir
Site of the sun-temple of Userkaf Lies on the west bank of the Nile
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Ma'at
The Egyptians used the concept of Ma'at personified as a goddess to refer to the cosmic order which came into being when creation banished chaos Justice and order Keep peace Make the sun rise
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Queen roles
To provide a male heir To be the sexual partner of her husband To be a good wife of the king Represent Hathor Provide female element in the religious duties of the state Have administrative power to give out orders, but only to other women Mother of
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Non royal craftswomen jobs
Weavers Fishmongers Basket-weavers Bread makers (never bakers) Singing Dancing
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Role of artisans
Responsible for the creation of many of the sources that survive today to give us information about this time in Egyptian history Types include: Sculptors Carpenters Goldsmiths
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Importance of the nile Agriculture
Every year, the Nile would flood, leaving silt on the fields. This silt fertilised the soil, leaving very rich farming land Nile also watered crops Papyrus grew on its banks, providing materials for paper, mats, sandals, basket-ware and boats
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Importance of the nile animal husbandry
Limited information comes from the tomb scenes of the nobles Appears that farmers kept herds of sheep, goats, pigs and cattle
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Importance of the nil transport
The Nile was the main highway of Egypt. Everything that had to be transported was moved by boat on the Nile Stone used in the construction of the pyramids would be transported via the river from the quarries down near Aswan to Giza
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Kingship titles
Held titles which associated him with the gods e.g. Horus, The One Beloved by the Two Ladies, the Son of Re, the Good God, etc.
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Religious role
Focus of religion in Old Kingdom life In the afterlife the king had the right to rule the gods and adopt their identities Had a cult dedicated to him, the god-king which was practised in the mortuary complex established near his pyramid Chief priest
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Heb-Sed festival
Like a jubilee, as it was only performed after the king had been in office for a long time, around 30 years To ritually rejuvenate the king’s power so that he could continue to rule effectively
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Heb-Sed festival 2
To commemorate the king’s accession to the throne by recreating the coronation ceremony Most important ceremony in a king’s life, aside from the coronation
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Osiris myth
The myth was never actually written down in the Old Kingdom, but we have evidence of it in the pyramid texts References to the Osiris myth don’t actually appear until late 5th dynasty The myth appears to explain several key elements of the Egyptians
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Elements of Osiris myth
The origins of the practice of mummification. The use of Dryt or female mourners The reason for Osiris being considered king of the afterlife
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Role and duties of the king
The importance of the god king, who was a divine individual holding the powers of all gods, acting as a high priest for all temples, is established in the early dynastic Narmer palette.
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Narmer pallette
One side reveals the king importance as he is larger than any other represented figures, where he is wearing the white crown of Upper Egypt, smiting a kneeling. The king’s roles included governing Egypt and maintaining ma’at which can be seen on the
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Role of king continued 1
He was also the link between the gods and the Egyptian people and could intervene on their behalf. He owned all the land, which have him the opportunity to reward nobles for their loyal services by offering them land. He was in addition the chief jud
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Role of king continued 2
The king, alive or dead, needed to be looked after and so he built his own tombs and he also built large scale public works such as land reclamation and irrigation projects. He also conducted trade inside and outside Egypt and all trade along the Nil
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Role of king continued 3
. He was also responsible for overseeing the army and fortresses and he emphasised his importance by wearing the pharonic kilt and red of white crown and carrying the crook, flail, mace and a ceremonial false beard. Most archaeological evidence depic
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Evidence for Role of Kings
This is emphasized by reliefs of the pharaoh Pepi II in his mortuary temple smiting Bedowin as well as fighting. The pharaoh was then also responsible for keeping Egypt safe from external threats. The king would often marry his female relatives to ke
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Superstructure
o Evolution of importance of Snefenu o Visual metaphor for economic prosperity
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Quote on mark
Eternity was the common destination of each man, woman and child in Egpyt buy not eternity as in an afterlife above the clouds but rather, an eternal Egypt which mirrored ones life on earth
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Facts pyramid 1
Oldest pyramid texts are evidenced from the Pyramid of Unas 2,400 BC the last King of the 5th Dynast and infer right back to th pre-dynastic with references to burials under sand as the kings implore the gods to cast the sand from their faces
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Evidence of moving forward in mummification
The arm of King Djer of Dynasty 1 provides us with the first conclusive evidence of an attempt to preserve the outer appearance of the deceased
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Murance pyramids
The magical reality of the scenes assured the tomb owner of material substance in the afterlife independent of his actual income during his lifetime
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Class and burial
Whilst it is evident that tombs and burial customs of the Old Kingdom are tied directly to class and status – the king and the nobility and thus the practices related to them had little application to most common people
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Card 2

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Viser responsabilités

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included choosing who would see the king, supervised the treasury and all the pharaoh’s belongings, chief judge of justice, overseer of all scribes who rote on royal documents, received and sent dispatches to officials in provinces

Card 3

Front

Viser responsabilités 2

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a nomarchy

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Nomarchs roles

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Preview of the front of card 5
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