Anatomy and Physiology- the Cardiovascular System

  • Created by: AliceTori
  • Created on: 14-04-17 12:07
Myogenic
The capacity of the heart to generate its own impulse
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Sinoatrial node (SAN)
A small mass of cardiac muscle found in the wall of the right atrium that generates the heartbeat. Commonly known as the pacemaker
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Atrioventricular node (AVN)
This node relays the impulse between the upper and lower sections of the heart
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Bundle of His
A collection of heart muscle cells that transmit electrical impulses from the AVN via the bundle of branches to the ventricles
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Purkinje Fibres
Muscle fibres that conduct impulses in the walls of the ventricles causing them to contract
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Systole
When the heart contracts
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Diastole
When the heart relaxes
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Chambers of the heart
Right and Left Atrium, Right and Left Ventricle
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Blood vessels of the heart
Superior and Inferior Vena Cava, Pulmonary Vein, Pulmonary Artery, Aorta
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Valves of the heart
Tricuspid, Bicuspid, Semi Lunar
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Conduction system order
SAN, Atrial systole, AVN, Bundle of His, Purkinje Fibres, Ventricular Systole
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Neural control mechanism
Sympathetic system stimulates the heart to beat faster and parasympathetic stimulates the heart to return to resting level
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Nervous system
Made up of the CNS (central nervous system) and peripheral nervous system
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Sympathetic system
a part of the autonomic nervous system that increases heart rate
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Parasympathetic system
a part of the autonomic nervous system that decreases heart rate
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Central nervous system
Made up of the brain and spinal cord
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Peripheral nervous system
made up of nerve cells that transmit information to and from the CNS
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Cardiac control centre
located in the medulla oblongata of the brain which co-ordinates the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. It is stimulated by chemoreceptors, baroreceptors and proprioceptors
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Medulla oblongata
the most important part of the brain as it regulates processes that keep us alive such as breathing and heart rate
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Chemoreceptors
Tiny structures in the carotid arteries and aortic arch that detect changes in blood acidity caused by and increase or decrease in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood
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Chemoreceptors
increase in CO2, increase heart rate
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Baroreceptors
Special sensors in tissues in the aortic arch, carotid sinus, heart and pulmonary vessels that respond to changes in blood pressure to either increase or decrease heart rate
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Baroreceptors
Increase in blood pressure, increase heart rate
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Proprioceptors
Sensory nerve endings in muscles, tendons and joints that detect changes in muscle movement
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Proprioceptors
increase in muscle movement, increase heart rate
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Hormonal control mechanism
when hormones such as adrenaline are released which stimulates the SAN which causes an increase in the speed and force of the heart contraction
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Adrenaline
a stress hormone that is released by the sympathetic nerves and cardiac nerve during exercise which causes and increase in heart rate
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Stroke volume
the volume of blood pumped out of the heart ventricles in each contraction
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Resting stroke volume
average of approx. 70ml
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Stroke volume depends on:
Venous return, elasticity of cardiac fibres and contractility of cardiac tissue
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Venous return
the return of blood to the right hand side of the heart via the vena cava
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Elasticity of cardiac fibres
the degree of stretch of the cardiac tissue during the diastole phase. The more they stretch, the greater the force of contraction
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Ejection fraction
the percentage of blood pumped out by the left ventricle per beat
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Average ejection fraction:
60%, can increase to up to 85% after training
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Ejection fraction =
stroke volume/ end diastolic volume (volume of blood in the ventricles at rest)
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Starlings Law
Increased venous return, greater diastolic filling of the heart, cardiac muscles stretched, greater force of contraction, increased ejection fraction
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Diastole phase
When the heart relaxes to passively fill with blood
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Myocardium, the contractility of cardiac tissue
the greater in contractility of the heart, the greater the force of contraction, highlighted by an increased ejection fraction
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Heart rate
the number of time the heart beats per minute
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Average resting heart rate
72 beats per minute (BPM)
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Maximum heart rate
220 minus your age (e.g. 220 - 16 = 204)
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Cardiac output
the volume of blood pumped out by the heart ventricles per minute
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Cardiac output (Q) =
Stroke volume (SV) x Heart rate (HR)
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Heart rate of trained performers:
the heart can be trained to have a lower resting heart rate so they can increase their heart rate range and increase their maximum heart rate
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Cardiac hypertrophy
the thickening of the muscular wall of the heart so it becomes bigger and stronger; can also mean a larger ventricular cavity
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Cardiac muscle develops because...
of regular aerobic exercise
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Increase in cardiac muscle means...
a bigger and stronger heart so increased stroke volume and force of contraction so heart does not have to beat as often therefore decreasing heart rate
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Cardiac output in response to exercise
It will increase as the intensity of exercise increases until the maximum intensity is reached and it will the plateau
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Bradycardia
A decrease in resting heart rate to below 60 beats per minute
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Cardiac output of trained and untrained performers:
is the same at 5 litres
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Atherosclerosis
a condition that occurs when the arteries harden and narrow as they become clogged up by fatty deposits
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Atheroma
a fatty deposit found in the inner lining of an artery
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Angina
chest pain that occurs when the bloody supply through the coronary arteries to the muscles of the heart is restricted
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Blood pressure
the force exerted by the blood against the blood vessel wall
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High blood pressure
puts extra strain on the arteries and heart and if left untreated it increases the risk of heart attack, heart failure, kidney disease, stroke or dementia
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How to reduce high blood pressure:
regular aerobic exercise
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How to change cholesterol levels:
regular exercise lowers levels of 'bad' LDL cholesterol levels and also significantly increases the levels of 'good' HDL cholesterol levels
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Stroke
a stroke occurs when the blood supply to the brain is cut off
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Ischaemic strokes
the most common form where a blood clot stops the blood supply
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Haemorrhagic strokes
occur when a weakened blood vessel supplying the brain bursts
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How to reduce the risk of a stroke:
regular exercise to help reduce blood pressure and maintain a healthy weight
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Steady state
where the athlete is able to meet the oxygen demand with the oxygen supply
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Cardiovascular drift
characterised by a progressive decrease in stroke volume and arterial blood pressure, together with a progressive rise in heart rate
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Cardiovascular drift occurs...
during prolonged exercise (after 10 minutes) in a warm environment, despite the intensity of the exercise remaining the same
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Cardiovascular drift occurs...
due to a loss of fluid in the blood to increase blood viscosity which decreases the amount of venous return and the stroke volume
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To compensate for decrease stroke volume...
the heart rate increases and maintains a higher cardiac output to attempt to create more energy to cool the body down
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Vascular system
made up of blood vessels that carry blood through the body, delivering oxygen and nutrients to the body tissues and takes away waste products such as carbon dioxide
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Pulmonary circulation
deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs and oxygenated blood back to the heart
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Systemic circulation
oxygenated blood to the body from the heart and then the return of deoxygenated blood from the body to the heart
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Vascular system- blood vessels
heart -> arteries -> arterioles -> capillaries -> venules -> veins -> heart
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Veins
have thinner muscles/ elastic tissue walls, blood pressure is low, they have valves and a wider lumen
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Arteries
have the highest pressure, a more elastic outer layer, a smaller lumen and a smooth inner layer
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Capillaries
only wide enough to allow one red blood cell to pass through which slows down blood flow and allows the exchange of nutrients with the tissues to take place by diffusion
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Blood pressure
the force exerted by the blood against the blood vessel wall
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Systolic pressure
the pressure in the arteries when the ventricles are contracting
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Diastolic pressure
the pressure in the arteries when the ventricles are relaxing
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Blood pressure=
blood flow x resistance
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Blood pressure is dependent on...
the distance of the blood vessel from the heart
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Venous return
the return of blood to the right side of the heart via the vena cava
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What percentage of the total volume of blood is contained in the veins at rest?
around 70%
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Skeletal muscle pump
when the muscles around the veins contract and relax causing a pumping effect to squeeze blood back to the heart
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Respiratory pump
pressure changes in the thoracic cavity (chest) and the abdominal (stomach) cavity as the muscles contract and relax and this pressure change compresses the veins and assists blood return to the heart
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Pocket valves
they ensure that there is no back flow of blood in the veins as once the blood has passed through them they close to stop any blood passing back the other way
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Smooth muscle
in the walls of the veins and they help to squeeze blood back to the heart
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Suction pump of the heart
draws blood back into the heart
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Gravity
helps blood return to the heart from the upper body
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Venous return prevents...
blood pooling in the veins
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Important to maintain venous return so...
the skeletal muscles receive enough oxygen to meet the demands of the activity
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At rest, venous return is maintained by...
smooth muscle and pocket valves
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During exercise, venous return is maintained by...
skeletal muscle pump, respiratory pump, smooth muscle and pocket valves
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An active cool-down is necessary to...
keep the skeletal muscle pump and respiratory pump working to prevent blood pooling
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When systolic blood pressure increases...
there is an increase in venous return
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When systolic blood pressure decreases...
there is a decrease in venous return
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Plasma
The fluid part of blood (mainly water) that surrounds blood cells and transports them
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Haemoglobin
an iron-containing pigment found in red blood cells, which combines with oxygen to form oxyhaemoglobin
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Myoglobin
often called 'muscle haemoglobin'. It is an iron-containing muscle pigment in slow-twitch muscle fibres which has a higher affinity for oxygen than haemoglobin. It stores oxygen in the muscle fibres which can be used quickly when exercise begins
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The release of oxygen from oxyhaemoglobin is known as...
oxyhaemoglobin dissociation
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Mitochondria
often refferred to as the 'powerhouse' of the cell as respiration and energy production occur there
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Bohr shift
when an increase in blood carbon dioxide and a decrease in pH results in a reduction of the affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen
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pH
a measure of acidity. The range goes from 1 to 14 and anything less than 7 indicates acidity
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Factors affecting the Bohr shift:
increase in blood temperature, partial pressure of carbon dioxide increases, pH
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Increase in blood temperature
when the blood and muscle temperature increases during exercise, oxygen will dissociate from haemoglobin more readily
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Partial pressure of carbon dioxide increases
as the level of blood carbon dioxide rises during exercise, oxygen will dissociate faster from haemoglobin
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pH
more carbon dioxide will lower the pH in the blood. A drop in blood pH will cause oxygen to dissociate from haemoglobin more quickly
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Vascular shunt mechanism
the redistribution of cardiac output
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During exercise blood is redirected from...
internal organs such as the intestines and the kidneys to the skeletal muscles
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Blood flow to the brain is...
maintained throughout exercise to maintain brain function
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Vasodilation
the widening of the blood vessels to increase the flow of blood into the capillaries
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Vasoconstriction
the narrowing of the blood vessels to reduce blood flow into the capillaries
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Engaging the vascular shunt mechanism...
chemoreceptors detect an increase in carbon dioxide levels which stimulate the vasomotor control centre in the medulla oblongata in the brain which causes the redistribution of blood through vasodilation and vasoconstriction
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During exercise vasodilation occurs at...
the arterioles supplying the muscles
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During exercise vasoconstriction occurs at...
the arterioles supplying non-essential organs such as the intestines and the liver
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Redirection of blood flow occurs through...
stimulation of sympathetic nerves located in the walls of the blood vessel
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When sympathetic stimulation increases...
vasoconstriction occurs and blood flow reduces so it can be redistributed
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When sympathetic stimulation decreases...
vasodilation occurs and increases the blood flow to that body part
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Pre-capillary sphincters
tiny rings of muscle located at the opening of capillaries and when they relax, blood flow increases
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During exercise, pre-capillary sphincters at the muscles will...
relax to increase blood flow and therefore saturate the tissues with oxygen
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Arterio-venous difference
the difference between the oxygen content of the arterial blood arriving at the muscles and the venous blood leaving the muscles
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At rest A-VO2 diff is...
low as not much oxygen is required by the muscles
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During exercise A-VO2 diff is...
higher due to the muscles using more oxygen and more carbon dioxide is removed from the msucles
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Effects if training on A-VO2 diff:
training can increase the A-VO2 diff as trained performers can extract a greater amount of oxygen from the blood
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A small mass of cardiac muscle found in the wall of the right atrium that generates the heartbeat. Commonly known as the pacemaker

Back

Sinoatrial node (SAN)

Card 3

Front

This node relays the impulse between the upper and lower sections of the heart

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A collection of heart muscle cells that transmit electrical impulses from the AVN via the bundle of branches to the ventricles

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Muscle fibres that conduct impulses in the walls of the ventricles causing them to contract

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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