PE - Anatomy & Physiology

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What is the agonist?
The primary muscle responsible for movement (contracting).
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What is the antagonist?
The muscle in opposition to the agonist (relaxing).
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What is the fixator?
The muscle that stabilises the agonist.
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What is the synergist?
The muscle assisting the agonist (core muscle).
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Describe the 3 types of muscle contractions.
Concentric = shortening & contracting; Eccentric = lengthening & relaxing; Isometric = stationary.
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What are the 3 types of joints?
Fibrous = fixed; Cartilaginous = limited/restricted movement; Synovial = freely moveable.
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What are the 6 joint classifications?
Saddle; Pivot; Condyloid; Gliding; Ball & Socket; Hinge.
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Name 3 structural characteristics of type 1 muscle fibres.
Red; Small; Many mitochondria; Many capillaries; High myoglobin; Low glycogen.
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Name 3 structural characteristics of type 2a muscle fibres.
Red/Pink; Intermediate size; Many mitochondria; Many capillaries; High myoglobin; Intermediate glycogen.
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Name 3 structural characteristics of type 2b muscle fibres.
White; Large; Few mitochondria; Few capillaries; Low myoglobin; High glycogen.
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Name 2 functional characteristics of type 1 muscle fibres.
Slow speed; Low strength; High fatigue resistance; High aerobic capacity; Low anaerobic capacity.
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Name 2 functional characteristics of type 2a muscle fibres.
Fast speed; Intermediate strength; Moderate fatigue resistance; Moderate aerobic capacity; High anaerobic capacity.
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Name 2 functional characteristics of type 2b muscle fibres.
Fast speed; High strength; Low fatigue resistance; Low aerobic capacity; High anaerobic capacity.
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Give 3 effects of a warm-up.
Raise HR; Dilates capillaries; Reduces blood viscosity; Raises body temperature; Reduce muscle response times; etc.
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Give 3 effects of a cool-down.
Continues metabolic processes; Prevents blood pooling; Maintains venous return; Prevents DOMS; Flush capillaries; Removes CO2 & lactic acid.
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Give 3 benefits of physical activity on the muscle-skeletal system.
Increase bone density; Increase strength of joints; Increase synovial fluid; Reduce risk of osteoporosis; Increase muscle hypertrophy.
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What is osteoarthritis?
The wearing away of cartilage (due to overuse).
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What is osteoporosis?
The weakening of bones caused by a reduction in bone density.
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What is a growth plate injury?
Damage to the area of growing tissue at the end of long bones (weakest part of skeleton).
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What is joint stability?
The resistance offered by various tissues surrounding a joint. Low stability can cause dislocations or ligament damage.
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What is linear motion?
When a body moves in a line at the same distance, direction, & speed.
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What is angular motion?
When a body moves in a circular movement around a fixed point.
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What is general motion?
A combination of both linear & angular motion.
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What is a force?
A push or pull acting on a body/object to change its state of motion.
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What are the 3 causes of a force?
Cause a body at rest to move; Cause a moving body to change direction/accelerate/decelerate; Change the shape of an object.
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Outline the 2 types of force.
Direct force = passing through COM to produce linear motion; Eccentric force = passing outside COM to produce angular motion.
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What is Newton's First Law?
Inertia = an object will remain at a state of rest until an external force acts upon it.
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What is Newton's Second Law?
Acceleration = the rate of change in momentum is directly proportional to the force applied.
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What is Newton's Third Law?
Reaction = for every action, there is an equal & opposite reaction.
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What is the Centre of Mass?
A point in/near an object where its whole mass may be considered to be concentrated.
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What is mass?
The amount of material of which a body is composed of.
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Name 3 factors that control stability.
Height of COM; Line of gravity; Base of support; Linear/Angular motion; Take off.
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Describe the cardiac cycle.
Atrial diastole = atria fill with blood; Ventricular diastole = blood travels into ventricles; Atrial systole = atria contract forcing blood into ventricles; Ventricular systole = ventricles contract & force blood out through aorta to body.
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Describe the conduction system.
SA node = cardiac impulses to coordinate heartbeat; AV node = control AV valves; Bundle of his = controls ventricles; Purkinje fibres = carry contraction impulse to the ventricles.
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Outline the 4 neural factors that regulate the heart rate.
Chemoreceptors = increases in CO2; Baroreceptors = increases in blood pressure; Proprioreceptors = increases in muscle contractions; Thermoreceptors = increases in blood temperature.
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Outline the 2 intrinsic factors.
Temperature increase = active muscles & metabolic processes generate heat; Venous return = Starling's Law (SV increases if more blood enters heart) & muscles contract causing squeezing effect on veins.
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Outline the 2 hormonal factors.
Adrenaline = trigger SA node & increase HR; Acetylcholine = relaxes & decreases HR.
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Name the 5 mechanisms of venous return.
Skeletal muscle pump; Respiratory pump; Pocket valves; Gravity; Smooth muscle.
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Explain how blood is distributed to the working muscles during exercise.
Receptors send messages to VCC; sympathetic impulse = vasodilates arterioles; PC sphincter open; blood into capillaries (gaseous exchange); into venules; into veins & back to heart.
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Explain the vascular shunt mechanism.
Receptors send messages to VCC; parasympathetic impulse = vasoconstricts arterioles; PC sphincter closed; blood sent through shunt vessel; into venules; into veins & back to the heart; sent to working muscles instead.
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How is oxygen transported in the blood?
3% carried in plasma; 97% transported in [oxy]haemoglobin.
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How is carbon dioxide transported in the blood?
5% carried in plasma as carbonic acid; 10% carried in [carbamino-]haemoglobin; 85% transported in plasma with water.
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What is blood pressure?
The contractive force of the heart ventricles that provides the pressure to force the blood through the arteries.
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What are the figures for the average resting blood pressure & for someone with hypertension?
Average = 120/80 mmHg; Hypertension = 140/90 mmHg.
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Give 3 effects of smoking on the vascular system.
Reduce oxygen uptake; Produce CO; Plaque in blood vessels; Risk of CHDs; Reduces blood vessel elasticity; Reduces blood flow; Increase BP; Increased fibrinogen & platelets; Increased risk of thrombosis; Increased risk of stroke.
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What is arteriosclerosis?
Loss of elasticity & thickening/hardening of arteries, reducing efficiency to vasodilate/vasoconstrict.
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What is atherosclerosis?
Form of arteriosclerosis - plaque from cholesterol narrows the lumen so blood clots form, causing hypertension.
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What is hypertension?
Long-term, enduring high BP.
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What is angina?
Partial blockage of coronary artery, causing chest pain due to inadequate O2 to the heart muscle wall.
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What is heart attack?
A sudden restriction in O2 to the heart muscle wall.
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State 3 ways to lessen the risk of CHDs.
Improve heart hypertrophy (capacity); Decrease blood fibrinogen/blood clotting; Decrease blood lipids; Decrease LDL; Increase HDL; Lower BP; Reduce obesity; Alleviate tension.
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Give 2 advantages of a Balanced Active Healthy Lifestyle.
Increased heart hypertrophy (capacity); Increased stroke volume; Increased efficiency of vascular system; Protection against CHDs.
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Give 2 adaptations of the heart to training.
Myocardial heart hypertrophy; Increased stroke volume; Bradycardia.
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Give 2 adaptations of the vessels to training.
Reduced BP; Increased circulation; Capillarisation at alveoli; Increased elasticity of arterial walls.
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Give the 2 adaptations of the blood to training.
Increased volume of blood; Increased haemoglobin density.
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What are the 6 points follow when describing inspiration or expiration?
Contraction/Relaxation of intercostals; Rib cage movement; Volume of thoracic cavity; Pressure increase/decrease in the air; Pressure gradient; Movement of air.
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What else happens in breathing during exercise compared to at rest?
Rate & depth of breathing increases; Inspiration is more forceful; Additional muscles are used (clavicular & stermal head of SCM, scalenes, pectoralis minor.
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What is tidal volume? Give the figure for it at rest.
The volume of air inspired/expired with each breath; 500ml at rest.
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What is breathing rate?
The number of breaths per minute (frequency).
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What is minute ventilation?
The volume of air inspired/expired in one minute.
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What is vital capacity?
The maximum amount of air that can be expelled after a maximum inspiration.
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Describe the neural factors controlling the mechanics of breathing during exercise.
Receptors detect changes; Messages to RCC; Stimulation of external intercostals (intercostal nerve) or diaphragm (phrenic nerve); Contraction/Relaxation further; Rib cage further; Volume further; More air into lungs; Expiration = active.
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Describe the processes of internal respiration allowing more oxygen to be diffused into the muscle cell during exercise.
More O2 for diffusion; Bohr shift (dissociation of O2 from haemoglobin); Increased blood temperature; Reduced affinity of O2 to haemoglobin; More O2 into muscle cell; Increased concentration gradient; More CO2 in blood; Increased acidity.
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What is the Hering-Breur Reflex?
The reflex triggered to prevent over-inflation of the lungs (pulmonary stretch receptors respond to lungs).
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Where does oxygen travel from in external respiration?
From the lungs to the alveoli & capillaries.
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Where does oxygen travel from in internal respiration?
From the muscles to the capillaries.
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Briefly outline the oxygen-dissociation curve.
As oxygen tension increases, haemoglobin dissociates oxygen to the working muscles; the graph shifts to the right (Bohr shift) if there is an increase in CO2.
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Outline the effects of altitude on the respiratory system.
Reduced pO2 in alveoli (hypoxia); Reduced diffusion gradient; Reduced pO2 in alveolar air decreases saturation of haemoglobin in lungs; O2 to tissues reduced - aerobic capacity & performance declines; VO2 max decreases; Muscles fatigue.
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Give 3 long-term benefits of altitude.
Increase in RBCs (adaptation); Increase in myoglobin in muscle cells; Increase in mitochondria in muscle cells; More oxidative enzymes in mitochondria for energy/respiration.
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Give 3 negatives of altitude.
Sickness; Reversibility (body adapts again); Expensive to train at altitudes.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the antagonist?

Back

The muscle in opposition to the agonist (relaxing).

Card 3

Front

What is the fixator?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the synergist?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describe the 3 types of muscle contractions.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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