Anatomy and Physiology

  • Created by: KayshaN
  • Created on: 11-10-18 13:20
When an Oocyte and Sperm fuse what is the cell called?
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Fill in the blanks.. Implantation involves the ? attaching to the ? and embedding itself in the ?
Blastocyst, Endometrium, Uterus
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What are the 3 Germ Layers (gastrulation)?
Ectoderm, Mesoderm, Endoderm
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What is the primary function of microvilli?
Increased SA
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Epithelial cells can also be glands, what is the difference between exodcrine and endocrine glands?
Exocrine secrete into ducts, endocrine directly into blood
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What is this secretion mechanism, 'cell containing, accumulates, has to die, lysis to be secreted'?
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What type of stem cell does connective tissue originate from?
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What are the 3 main types of connective tissue?
Supportive, Connective, Fluid
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Type III Collagen, smaller diameters, branching network around fats scaffolding in soft organs
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Formed in bone marrow, histamine released, stop blood clots.
Mast Cells
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Which mechanism do hormones NOT cause activty?
Increasing production response
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What happens if a homrone is an agonsit?
Causes something to occur
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Converting receptor activation into a cellular reponse is called?
Signal Transduction Cascade
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Ligand binds to receptor, thousands of cells switched on?
Amplification Cascade
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How do hydrophobic hormones move through the body?
Reversible hormone-protein complex
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Conformational Change, ligand binds actvated enzymes?
Intrinsically Enzymatic Receptors
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Conformational change of receptor activates phosphorylation of target protein?
JAK Kinase
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Three subunits, ligand conformational change, alpha sub unit binds to protein
G-coupled Receptor
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What is clearence rate?
the rate at which hormone levels are removed from the blood
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Horomones derived from cholestrol, hydrophobic, difficult to transport?
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What does tyrosine derive?
epinephrine and norepinphrine
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Made of chains of amino acids, hydrophillic, several steps roughER, Smooth ER
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Why is a peptide hormone produced and bits cut off?
mature hormone very effective, would work in the cell
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What does Oxytoxin do?
important in pregnancy, contraction of the uterus
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What is the sturture that bridges between the anterior and posterior?
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Which area does the posterior pituitary originate from?
Neural Ectoderm
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Which hormone do the Pinealocytes secrete?
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What is the bridge over te Thyroid and Parathyroid called?
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What substance is the thyroid hormone stored in?
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Which cells produce colloid?
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What kind of feedback involves the Prinicple Cells and TSH?
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What is added to Thyroglobulin to activate it?
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What is T3 made up of?
Mono-iodotyrosine and Di-iodityrosine
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How does Thyroid Hormone have an impact?
Into cytoplasm, act as transcription factor
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Parafollicular cells produce Calcitonin, what does it do?
Reduce calcium levels in the blood
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What cells make up the Parathyroid Gland?
Chief and Oxyphil
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What is the function of Parathyroid Hormone?
regulates mineral homestasis
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What do oxyphil cells resemble?
Fried Egg
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Zona Glomerulosa?
Mineral Corticoids
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Zona Fasciculata?
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Zona Reticularis?
Sex Hormones
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Mineral Corticoids?
essentail to life, aldosterone blood pressure
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role in stress response, cortisol gluconeogenesis
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Sex Hormones?
female development, DHEA
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What section of the Adrenal Gland harbours the 3 layers?
Adrenal Cortex
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What hormones does the Adrenal Medulla prodcue?
Adrenaline and Noradrenaline
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What cells produce Adrenaline and Nor?
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What are the different receptors for Adrenaline and Noradrenaline?
Alpha Beta
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In the pancrease, alpha cells produce?
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What do the Delta cells produce?
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What are the components of the Renal Corpuscles?
Bowmans Capsule and Glomerulus
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Which are the correct strutures to see in the Renal Cortex?
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What is the fucntion of a podocyte?
Additional Filters
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What are the brush border and rich mitrochondria needed for on the PCT?
Reabsorption of glucose
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Hormone secreting cells that are formed when the DCT contacts the afferent/efferent arteriole are forms muscula densa tissue?
Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
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Volume of plasma from which a substance is completely removed by the kidney in a time?
Renal Clearence
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What does a barorecptor detect?
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Where are the renal barorecptors situtated?
Juxtaglomerular cells
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What do Macula Densa cells relases in response to a decrease in sodium chloride?
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What is the function of Prostaglandins?
Activate Juxtaglomerular cells
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What is the role of Renin?
Cleave angiotensiagen to angiotensin I
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Which enzymes catalyses angiotensin I to angiontensin II?
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What type hormone is Aldosterone and where is it secreted from?
Steroid, Adrenal Cortex
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How does Aldosterone pose an effect on the cell?
Transcription Factor
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Aldosterone activates Sodium-potassium pumps in the colecting ducts, but in which cells?
P cells
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What is Tubulogomerular Feedback?
Macula Densa detect decrease GFR, dilate afferent
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Fill in the blanks.. Implantation involves the ? attaching to the ? and embedding itself in the ?


Blastocyst, Endometrium, Uterus

Card 3


What are the 3 Germ Layers (gastrulation)?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is the primary function of microvilli?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Epithelial cells can also be glands, what is the difference between exodcrine and endocrine glands?


Preview of the front of card 5
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