Anatomy

  • Created by: LBCW0502
  • Created on: 09-02-18 12:26
What is anatomy?
The study of structure and shape of the body, its parts and relationship to one another
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What is physiology?
The study of how the body and its component parts work or function
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Is anatomy related to physiology?
Yes - structure-function relationship
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State the levels of organisation
Chemical - organelle - cell - tissue - organ - organ system - organism
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Give the characteristics of all living things
Organisation (auto-regulation), irritability (stimuli), contractibility, nutrients (ingest/absorb/assimilate), metabolism/growth (potential/mechanical, simple/large), respiration (gas exchange), excretion (waste), reproduction
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What are the four standard anatomical positions?
Frontal/coronal plane, transverse/horizontal plane, midsagittal plane (middle) and parasagittal plane (parallel to middle) - (oblique)
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How many directional terms are there to learn?
16
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Right
Towards the right side of the body e.g. the right ear
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Left
Towards the left side of the body e.g. the left eye
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Superior
A structure above another e.g. the chin is superior to the navel
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Inferior
A structure below another e.g. the navel is inferior to the chin
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Cephalic
Closer to the head than another structure (usually similar to superior) e.g. the chin is cephalic to the chin
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Caudal
Closer to the tail than another structure (usually similar to inferior) e.g. the navel is caudal to the chin
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Anterior
The front of the body e.g. the navel is anterior to the spine
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Posterior
The back of the body e.g. the spine is posterior to the breast bone
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Ventral
Toward the belly (usually similar to anterior) e.g. the navel is ventral to the spine
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Dorsal
Toward the back (usually similar to posterior) e.g. the spine is dorsal to the breast bone
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Proximal
Closer to the point of attachment to the body than another structure e.g. the elbow is proximal to the wrist
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Distal
Farther from the point of attachment to the body than another structure e.g. the wrist is distal to the elbow
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Lateral
Away from the midline of the body e.g. the ****** is lateral to the breast bone
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Medial
Toward the midline of the body e.g. the bridge of the nose is medial to the eye
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Superficial
Toward or on the surface e.g. the skin is superficial to muscle
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Deep
Away from the surface (internal) e.g. the lungs are deep to the ribs
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Describe features of organ systems of the body
Tissues arranged to form organs. Organ groups arranged into systems. Systems don't work independently. Health depends on co-ordinated function of each system
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Describe features of the integumentary system
Skin, nails, hair, sweat glands. Protection. Serves as first line of immune system. Regulate temperature. Prevent water loss. Produce vitamin D/precursors
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Describe features of the skeletal system
Bones, associated cartilage, joints. Protection, Support. Allows body movement. Produces blood cells. Stores minerals
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Describe features of the muscular system
Muscles attached to skeleton. Allows body movement. Maintains posture. Produces heat
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Describe features of the nervous system
Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory receptors. Major regulatory system. Detects sensation. Controls movement. Controls physiological function and intellectual function
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Which two parts is the nervous system divided into?
Sympathetic (fight or flight) and parasympathetic (rest and digest)
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Describe features of the endocrine system
Endocrine glands such as the pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands. Major regulatory system. Regulation of metabolism. Many other functions
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Describe features of the cardiovascular system
Heart, blood vessels, blood. Transports nutrients/waste products/gases and hormone. Involved in immune response. Regulation of body temperature
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Describe features of the lymphatic system
Lymph vessels, lymph nodes and other lymph organs. Removes foreign substances from the blood and lymph. Combats disease. Maintains tissue fluid balance. Absorbs fats
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Describe features of the respiratory system
Lungs and respiratory passages. Exchanges gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between blood and air. Regulates blood pH
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Describe features of the digestive system
Mouth, oesophagus, stomach, intestines and accessory structures. Performs mechanical and chemical processes of digestion. Absorption of nutrients. Elimination of wastes
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Describe features of the urinary system
Kidneys, urinary bladder, ducts that carry urine. Remove waste products from the circulatory system. Regulates blood pH, ion balance and water balance
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Describe features of the reproductive system
Gonads, accessory structures and genitals of males and females. Process of reproduction. Controls sexual functions and behaviours
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What are the key points of surface anatomy for anterior?
Orbital, buccal, abdominal and thoracic
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What are the key points of surface anatomy for posterior?
Occipital, lumbar and gluteal
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What are the abdominal subdivisions?
Right upper quadrant, left upper quadrant, right lower quadrant and left lower quadrant
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What are the further abdominal subdivisions?
Right hypochondriac region, right lumbar region, right iliac region. Left hypochondriac region, left lumbar region, left iliac region. Epigastric region, umbilical region, hypogastric region
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What are the body cavities?
Abdominopelvic cavity, abdominal cavity, pelvic cavity, thoracic cavity
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State the three types of serous membranes
Pericardal serous membrane. Pleural serous membrane. Peritoneal serous membrane
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What are the names of the three diseases associated with the inflammation of the serous membranes?
Pericarditis, pleurisy, peritonitis
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is physiology?

Back

The study of how the body and its component parts work or function

Card 3

Front

Is anatomy related to physiology?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

State the levels of organisation

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Give the characteristics of all living things

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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