Development of Modern Surgery

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When was Ether first publicly used and by whom?
1847, demonstrated by William Morton
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What disadvantages were there of using Ether?
It is an irritant, is flammable and causes the patient to cough
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What was James Simpson's occupation?
Professor of Midwifery
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When did James Simpson discover Chloroform as an anaesthetic?
1847
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What was the name of the girl who died from Chloroform overdose, what was the operation and when?
Hannah Greener (14 years old), removing an infected toenail, 1848
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When did Chloroform gain popularity and why?
1857, Queen victoria used it during the birth of her 8th child
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When was the period that death rates increased due to Anaesthetics and what was it called?
1846-70, the black period of surgery
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What was Joseph Lister's profession?
Professor of Surgery in Glasgow
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What was the acid that Joseph Lister used as an antiseptic?
Carbolic Acid
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Where did Joseph Lister first observe the use of Carbolic Acid?
In the sewers in Durham to reduce the smell
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How much did antiseptics reduce the death rate?
From 50% to 15%
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What solution was used by Ignaz Semmelweis for surgeons to wash their hands in?
Chloride of Lime solution
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Who discovered blood groups and when?
Karl Landstiener in 1900
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What was discovered to prevent blood from clotting and when?
Sodium Citrate in 1914 (WW1)
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Who discovered X-rays and when?
Wilhelm Roentgen in 1895
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Who persuaded the government to pay for what in WW1?
Marie Curie, for mobile X-ray machines
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How many cases of plastic surgery were carried and when?
11,000 in WW1
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Who was Archibald McIndoe?
The Consultant in Plastic Surgery for the RAF
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How many burn cases did Archibald McIndoe operate plastic surgery on and when?
4,000 cases in WW1
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What did Christiaan Banard do and when?
Carried out the first successful heart transplant in 1967 in South Africa
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What did Helmuth Wesse do and when?
Developed injectable anaesthetics in the 1930s
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What did William Halstead do?
Introduced rubber gloves, caps, masks and gowns for surgery. Invented surgical gloves in 1889. Father of American Surgery. Investigated us of cocaine as a local anaesthetic in 1884.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What disadvantages were there of using Ether?

Back

It is an irritant, is flammable and causes the patient to cough

Card 3

Front

What was James Simpson's occupation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

When did James Simpson discover Chloroform as an anaesthetic?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What was the name of the girl who died from Chloroform overdose, what was the operation and when?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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