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Coding
the format in which information is stored in the various memory stores
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Capacity
the amount of information that can be held in a memory store
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Duration
the length of time information can be held in memory
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Short-term memory (STM)
the limited-capacity memory store; coding is mostly acoustic, capacity is between 5 and items on average, and duration is between about 18 and 30 seconds
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Long-term memory (LTM)
the permanent memory store; coding is mostly semantic, it has unlimited capacity and can store memories for up to a lifetime
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Multi-store model (MSM)
a representation of how memory works in terms of three stores called sensory register, STM and LTM; it also describes how information is transferred from one store to another, how it is remembered and how it is forgotten
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Sensory register
the memory stores for each of our five senses (e.g. iconic store and echoic store)
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Iconic store (sensory register)
memory store for vision; coding is visual and capacity is huge, information lasts for a very short time
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Episodic memory
a LTM store for personal events. it includes memories of when the events occurred and of the people, objects, places and behaviours involved. memories from this store have to be retrieved consciously and with effort
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Semantic memory
a LTM store for our knowledge of the world. this includes facts and our knowledge of what words and concepts mean. these memories usually also need to be recalled deliberately
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Procedural memory
a LTM store for our knowledge of how to do things. this includes our memories of learned skills. we usually recall these memories without making a conscious or deliberate effort
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Working memory model (WMM)
a representation of STM. it suggests that STM is a dynamic processor or different types of information using sub-units coordinated by a central decision-making system
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Central executive (CE)
the component of the WMM the co-ordinates the activities of the three subsystems in memory. it also allocates processing resources to those activities
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Phonological loop (PL)
the component of the WMM that processes information in terms of sound. this includes both written and spoken material; it's divided into the phonological store and the articulatory process
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Visuo-spatial sketchpad (VSS)
the component of the WMM that processes visual and spatial information in a mental space often called our 'inner eye'
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Episodic buffer (EB)
the component of the WMM that brings together material from the other subsystems into a single memory rather than separate strands. it also provides a bridge between working memory and LTM
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Interference
forgetting because one memory blocks another, causing one or both memories to be distorted or forgotten
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Proactive interference (PI)
forgetting occurs when older memories, already sorted, disrupt the recall of newer memories. the degree of forgetting is greater when the memories are similar
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Retroactive interference (RI)
forgetting occurs when newer memories disrupt the recall of older memories already stored. the degree of forgetting is again greater when the memories are similar
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Retrieval failure
a form of forgetting; it occurs when we don't have the necessary cues to access memory. the memory is available but not accessible unless a suitable cue is provided
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Cue
a 'trigger' of information that allows us to access a memory, such cues may be meaningful or may be indirectly linked by being encoded at the time of learning (e.g. cues may be external-environment, or internal-mood)
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Card 2

Front

the amount of information that can be held in a memory store

Back

Capacity

Card 3

Front

the length of time information can be held in memory

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

the limited-capacity memory store; coding is mostly acoustic, capacity is between 5 and items on average, and duration is between about 18 and 30 seconds

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

the permanent memory store; coding is mostly semantic, it has unlimited capacity and can store memories for up to a lifetime

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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