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a two-way, enduring, emotional tie to a specific other person
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Interactional synchrony
the co-ordinated rhythmic exchanges between carer and infant
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the interaction of similar behaviour patterns between carer and infant
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a person who gives help and protection to someone (child, elderly person, chronically ill etc)
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Pseudo imitations
a fake, false or pretend imitation
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Multiple attachments
being attached to several people (babies can do so after 9 months)
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Sensitive responsiveness
when a child is more likely to form attachments with people who respond accurately to the baby's signals, not someone they spent more time with
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Primary attachment figure
the person that the child is most attached to and dependent on (e.g. for most children it would be with their mother/father)
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Separation anxiety
anxiety provoked in a young child by separation or the threat of separation from its mother or main carer
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Stranger anxiety
this is a form of distress that children have when exposed to people unfamiliar to them, the child may cry, recoil or cling to an attachment figure
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adults who interact with infants use a modified form of vocal language that is high-pitched, song-like in nature, slow and repetitive; this aids communication between carer and infant and serves to strengthen the attachment bond
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an innate readiness to acquire certain behaviours during a critical or sensitive period of development
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Confounding variable
any variable, other than the IV, that may have affected the DV so we cannot be sure of the true source of changes to the DV
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Ethical issue
these arise when a conflict exists between the rights of participants in research studies and the goals of research to produce authentic, valid and worthwhile data
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Critical period
the time within which an attachment must form if it is to form at all
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Sensitive period
a stage in a person's development when they are more responsive to certain stimuli and quicker to learn skills
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Animal studies
studies carried out on non-human animal species rather than on humans, either for ethical or practical reasons
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any change in the environment that an organism registers
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any behaviour that the organism emits as a consequence of a stimulus
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a consistent connection between a stimulus and a response
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Secure base
secure attachment provides a sense of safety to enable exploration and independence
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Learning theory
a set of theories from the behaviourist approach to psychology that emphasise the role of learning in the acquisition of behaviour
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Classical conditioning
a learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired: a response which is at first elicited by the second stimulus, is eventually elicited by the first stimulus alone
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Operant conditioning
a type of learning in which a behaviour a behaviour is strengthened when it's followed by reinforcement and weakened when followed by punishment
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Internal working model
mental representations we all have of our attachment to our primary caregiver, they are important in affecting our future relationships because they carry our perception of what relationships are like
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when a mother appears to only be able to bond with one infant at a time (Bowlby)
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Social releasers
a social behaviour or characteristic that elicits a caregiving reaction
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Cultural variations
the ways the different groups of people vary in terms of their social practices, and the effects these practices have on development and behaviour
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a feature or quality belonging typically to a person, place or thing and serving to identify them
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Reunion behaviour
response to reunion with the caregiver after separation for a short period of time under controlled conditions
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Insecure-avoidant attachment
an attachment type characterised by low anxiety but weak attachment
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Insecure-resistant attachment
an attachment type characterised by strong attachment and high anxiety
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Secure attachment
generally seen as the most desirable attachment type, associated with psychologically healthy outcomes
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Cultural bias
ignoring the differences and imposing understanding based on the study of one culture to other cultures
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Strange situation
a controlled observation designed to test attachment security. infants are assessed on their response to playing in an unfamiliar room, being left alone, left with a stranger and being reunited with a caregiver
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Investigator effects
any effect of the investigator's behaviour (conscious or unconscious) on the research outcome (DV). this may include everything from the design of the study to the selection, and interaction with participants during the research
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Demand characteristics
any cue from the researcher or from the research situation that may be interpreted by participants as revealing the purpose of the investigation. this may lead to a participant changing their behaviour within the research situation
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Double blind
neither the participant nor researcher conducting the study are aware of the research aims or other important details of a study, and thus have no expectations that might alter a participant's behaviour
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Single blind
a research design in which a participant is not aware of research aims and/or which condition of the experiment they're recieving
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Disinhibited attachment
a type of insecure attachment where children do not form close attachments, such children will treat strangers with inappropriate familiarity
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Card 2


the co-ordinated rhythmic exchanges between carer and infant


Interactional synchrony

Card 3


the interaction of similar behaviour patterns between carer and infant


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Card 4


a person who gives help and protection to someone (child, elderly person, chronically ill etc)


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


a fake, false or pretend imitation


Preview of the back of card 5
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