• Created by: phoeberb
  • Created on: 16-05-19 14:49
What are the classes of amphibia?
Anura, urodela, apoda
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Amphibian skin features
Epidermis and Dermis, 20-85% of 02 from skin, cutaneous respiration
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Name 3 Stratums
Granulosum- solute barrier, Germinavatum- epidermis regeneration, Spongiosum- mucus and poison
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strange feature of amphibian eyes
Eyeball pushes food down throat, retractor and levator bulbi
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anuran vision
360 field of vision, close up vision is poor, detect movements
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How have modern anuran skeletons evolved?
ilium/urostyle, fused tibia/fibula and radius/ulna, elongated tarsals, less vertebrae
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name 2 anuran pelvic muscle
urostyle muscle due to having no tail, thigh extensor for swimming and jumping
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features of sacrum-pelvis junction
mobile hinge, lump seen in back is the pelvic girdle, absorbs impact
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tongue in lingual feeding
tongue attached to lower front jaw, pivots around muscle and flips out
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Internal anatomy- major organs
liver- dark lobules, stomach and intestine- tubular, urinary bladder- large structure, urine can be reabsorbed, kidneys- no loop of henle
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Male organs
testes next to kidneys, vas efferentia takes sperm to cloaca
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female organs
ovaries next to kidneys, ova pass down oviducts to cloaca
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fertilisation features
sperm and eggs ejected out of cloaca by each frog
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reproduction behaviours
form amplexus, external fertilisation, cloaca apposition
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how do dehydrated frogs osmoregulate?
Hypothalamus increases AVT, this increases aquaporin channels in the kidneys, bladder and pelvic skin
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features of frog lungs
Simple, alveoli for gas exchange, buccal pumping for respiration and vocalisation
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frog inspiration
buccal cavity expands drawing air in from outside and from the lungs
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frog expiration
buccal cavity contracts, air is drawn out of nostrils into the cavity and into the lungs
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how many chambers in a frog heart
3 chambers both supply single ventricle
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difference in the right and left side roles in frog heart
right side- systemic veins, 02 rich blood from cutaneous respiration. left- pulmonary veins
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Card 2


Amphibian skin features


Epidermis and Dermis, 20-85% of 02 from skin, cutaneous respiration

Card 3


Name 3 Stratums


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Card 4


strange feature of amphibian eyes


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Card 5


anuran vision


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