Amino acids - the monomers of proteins

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  • Created by: racheon
  • Created on: 23-02-14 14:51
How much of the organic matter of a cell do proteins make up?
50%.
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What are proteins made of? (5)
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes sulfur.
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What are the functions of proteins? (7)
Structural components, membrane carriers and pores, all enzymes are proteins, many hormones are proteins, antibodies are proteins, they provide building materials for growth and repair in organisms, and they're crucial to most metabolic activity.
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Define amino acids.
The monomers of proteins. They have the same basic structure. The 20 different amino acids involved in protein synthesis differ only in the R-group bonded to the central carbon.
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Why are proteins large molecules?
Because they're polymers.
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How are proteins made?
By joining similar, small subunits to create a chain of amino acids end-to-end.
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What do all amino acids have?
An amino group and 1 end of the molecule, an acid group at the other end and a carbon in between.
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What do amino acids joined end-to-end give?
A repeating 'backbone'.
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Why are amino acids not all identical?
Because they have different R-groups.
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What is the R-group in glycine?
A hydrogen bonded to the 2nd carbon.
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How do R-groups differ from one another?
Some are larger than the C-C-N part of the molecule, some are positively or negatively charged, some are hydrophobic or hydrophilic.
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What do plants need to manufacture amino acids, and where do they get it from, and what do they do with it?
Nitrate from the soil to be converted to amino groups and bonded to organic group made from the products of photosynthesis.
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How do animals obtain proteins, and what do they do with them?
As part of their diet which are digested to amino acids which can build proteins.
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What are proteins that animals can't build from materials they take in called, and where are they found?
'Essential amino acids' which are mostly found in meat.
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Why do vegetarians need to be careful about getting a supply of essential amino acids?
Because plants contain fewer of them than meat.
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What plant contains all essential amino acids?
Soya.
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What makes amino acids toxic in animals if too much is present?
The amino group.
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How are amino groups removed, and where does this happen in mammels?
In demination which happens in the liver.
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What are amino groups converted into, and how is this removed?
Urea, which is removed in urine.
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Does the R-group change the way amino acids are joined?
No.
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How are amino acids joined and what 2 things does it form?
A condensation reaction between the acid group of one and the amino group of another which forms a covalent bond between the 2 and a water molecule.
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What is the covalent bond between 2 amino acids called?
A peptide bond.
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What is the molecule formed when 2 amino acids join?
A dipeptide.
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How can a peptide bond be broken, and what does it use?
By a hydrolysis reaction which uses a water molecule.
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What is the making and breaking of peptides bonds required in?
The building and rebuilding of protein molecules in organisms, and in breaking proteins to amino acids.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are proteins made of? (5)

Back

Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes sulfur.

Card 3

Front

What are the functions of proteins? (7)

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Define amino acids.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why are proteins large molecules?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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