American Wild West

In 1840 whose territory was the Great Plains?
Native American Indians
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What lies between the Seirra Nevada and the Rocky Mountains?
Plateau region - semi-desert in the north, canyons in the south
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Where did the Plains Indians originally come from?
North Asia
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How did the Indians react when the europeans brought diseases?
They moved to the great plains as they had no resistance to the diseases
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How did trade affect the Indian way of life?
Guns changed the balance of power as they could be easily forced onto reservations
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How did horses help the Indians move to the plains?
They could move around faster and easier, hunting was easier and they became a symbol of wealth
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How long would it take to take down and pack a tipi?
10 minutes
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How was the tipi suited to resist the strong winds?
It's conical shape
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How did they keep the warm air in during the winter?
The bottom could be banked with earth
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How would the outside of the tipi be decorated?
With scenes showing their bravery in battle or war
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Why were the elderly important to the sioux?
They gave advice and passed on their history
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How did the sioux children learn?
From their parents
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What were sioux men responsible for?
Hunting, horses, and protecting the land and their family
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Why was polygamy common?
Husbands were lost in battle, more children, everyone was cared for
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Did the sioux allow divorce?
Yes, either partner could declare divorce but the women kept the tipi
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What were warrior societies responcible for?
Supervising hunting, travelling and protection from attack
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How did a sioux man become a chief?
He had great spiritual wisdom and hunting and warrior skills
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What would happen if an individual broke the rules?
They would be: shamed, humiliated and sometimes banished
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Why did the sioux smoke when making decisions?
To inform the spirits of their decision
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What confused the settlers about the sioux decision making?
They were not obligated to follow
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When would the buffalo dance be held?
Before the hunt
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What would they do during the buffalo hunt?
They would dress as buffalo and copy their movements
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Why would they desguise themselves as wolves whilst hunting?
To get close to the buffalo and they allowed wolves near them
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What would happen if the sioux stampeded the herd?
They would fall down buffalo jumps and die
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How many buffalo hunts were needed a year to provided for the band?
2 or 3
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What did the whites say about the sioux hunting for honour?
They were greedy and killed to many buffalo
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Why did the sioux dry some of the buffalo meat?
It could last a long time
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Who butchered the buffalo meat?
The women and childre
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What organ would be used to tan the hides?
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What did they make out of the buffalo hooves
Glue, rattles, toys
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Why did they leave the heart on the ground?
Give new life to ther herd
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What parts of the buffalo were eaten as delicacies?
Liver and kidney's
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What part of the buffalo did they use to make soap?
The fat
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When were dances and ceremonies used?
When the whole tribe needed to contact the spirit world
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When was the sundance performed?
For guidance in battle or when someone was ill
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What would boys do to find their first vision?
They would wash, pray and fast
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Who in the tribe would interpret their visions?
The medicine man
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What would they be given through their visions?
Their adult name
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When could women reach the spirit world?
When they reached pubity
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Why were circles important to the sioux?
Nature is made of circles: horizon, sun, moon, sky, life...
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What is the name of the sioux's great spirit?
Wakan Tanka
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What did the great spirit do?
Created all that lived, and guided them
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What did the sioux believe happens when they die?
They return to ther earth
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Why were high places especially sacred?
They brought them closer to the spirit world
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Which hills were especially sacred to the sioux?
Black Hills
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Why was the answer to Q.45 so special?
It was where the first sioux had been saved from the flood and they buried their dead there
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What was the Indian name for their medicine man?
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What did the sioux believe was wrong if a man was ill?
They had been possessed by an evil spirit
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What physical remedies did the medicine man give?
Ointments and potions made from herbs
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When were the medicine men consulted?
In all aspects of life: health, hunting and war
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How did the sioux pay the medicine man?
With horses
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Why did the sioux not suffer from public health problems?
They were nomadic
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What were the main causes of death?
Hunting, war and old age
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Why did the sioux steal horses in battle?
To improve their wealth
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Why did individuals go to battle?
Prove bravery, gain wealth, test their spiritual power, increase their tribal standing
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Why was counting coup important to the sioux?
It was braver to touch an enemy than to kill them
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Where did they put the scapls which they took?
They were dried and hung on the tipi
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Why did the indians take scalps?
So that their enemy could not enter the afterlife
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Why did the sioux go to war with other indians?
Rivalry for hunting space and revenge
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What does the hand print painted on the horse represent?
The mark of the warrior society
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Why were the sioux painted with different colours?
Magical colours were believed to protect you in battle
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Why did the sioux wear feathers?
To show their previous acts of bravery
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Did the sioux believe that you could own land?
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What does Manigfest Destiny mean?
That Americans were destined to dominate the continent
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Why did they have to believe in manifest destiny?
If they didn't they were going against america and gods will
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What did the Whites think of Indian polygamy?
They thought that it was sinful
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Why did the whites think that the indians were pagans?
The scalps and paintings of victories on the tipi's and praying to spirits
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What was the whites reaction to the lack of schools?
The indians are uncivilised
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Why did they think that the indians were lazy?
They did not farm the land and did not have to work hard for food
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What impression did George Catlin give of the Indians to the whites?
Both positive and negative
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Why was Francis Parkmans book inaccurate?
He wrote from a rich white mans perspective
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What view point did Colonel Richard I Dodge give of the Indians?
A military peace keeping view
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Who were the first non-indians to travel west?
The mountain men
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What did they bring back from the mountains?
Animal fur's
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What were the rendevous'?
Where the trappers and merchants gathered to trade
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Which indian tribe were dangerous to the mountain men?
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How did the mountain make the Indians less self sufficient?
They introduced them to alcohol and fire arms
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Which two diseases meant that the Mountain men were no longer welcome?
Small pox and Cholera
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Why did the whites go west?
Manifest destiny and the stories of lush fertile lands in california
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How did the economic depression of 1837 push people west?
They thought that they could earn more money in the west
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Which bill encouraged people to move west? and when was it made?
Pre-emption bill 1842
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Why did the missionaires move west?
They wanted to convert the Indians
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When and Who discovered Gold in the Sierra foothills?
James Marshall - 1848
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When all of the surface gold was gone what did the miners do?
They turned to 'wet digging' in rivers and streams
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What nickname was given the men who travelled with the california gold rush?
The fourty niner's
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What diseases were common in mining towns?
diarrhoea, dysentery and malaria
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By when had all of the surface gold gone?
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Who decided on punishments?
The miners voted
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What was the major problem in the saloons?
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When did an angel first appear to Joseph Smith?
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What did the lost plates claim?
Christ had appeared to the lost tribes of israel in America
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He said that no one could see the plates but what was published in his book?
8 people claimed to have seen the plates
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When he was deamed blasphemous where did he move his followers to?
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Why were people jealous of the mormons?
Their hard work made them successful
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What happened to the mormons when the economic depression hit?
Their bank collapsed so were run out of kirtland
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Who did the governor send to stop riots in missouri?
Army troops
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What sentence was Joseph Smith given when in Prison?
The death sentence
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What rumours made the gentiles hate the mormons even more?
They were stirring up the Indians and freeing slaves
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When Joseph Smith was released where did they go?
Illinois - Nauvoo
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In society what did the mormons work for?
A perfect society where no one was poor
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Where did missionaries go to bring converts back to America?
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1844 what revelation caused problems for some mormons?
Polygamy was acceptable
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What happened to Joseph Smith when he detroyed a printing press?
Put in jail for being a dictator
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What did the gentiles do to Joseph when he tried to run for president?
They shot him dead
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Where did Brigham Young decide to take the Mormons?
Salt Lake
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1845 what did Brigham Young agree with the government?
The Mormons would leave in 1846 in return for freedom
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Where was the first way station built?
Iowa - Camp of Israel
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Whish train did Young travle with?
The first one - building camps along the way
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Whose route did they follow to reach their destination?
The donner party
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Why did they not dispute what Brigham Young said?
They believed that he was inspired by God
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In mormon society who owned the land?
The Church
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What was the state called that young created in order to join the US?
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When did the US win salt lake from Mexico?
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What territory was Young the first Governor over?
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What did Young believe was necessary in order for the Mormons to succed?
They needed to be self sufficient
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What did the Perptual Emigrating Fund do?
Payed for converts passage from europe until they could pay it back
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Why were the Mormons uneducated?
The children could not go to school as they needed to helo on the land
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How did the mormons treat the Indians?
As equals
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1857 what did the US army do?
Tried to attack the Mormons
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What kind of attacks did the Mormons launch on the on coming troops?
Guerrilla attacks
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What did the Mormons decide was necessary to stop news of Emigrants deaths getting out?
They all had to be killed
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How did the US army react?
Granted Pardon as long as they came under their rule
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1890 under what condition could Utah become a state?
Polygamy had to be banned
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Why did europeans go to the US to settle on the Plains?
To escape unemployment
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What was the homestead act and when was it made?
must live and fram 160 acres of land for 5 years and you get it free - 1862
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What was the timbre culture act and when was it made?
An extra 160 acres of free land on top of the homestead act if 40 acres was planted with trees- 1873
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What was the desert land act and when was it made?
640 acres of cheap land where little rain fell - 1877
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Who needed a new life on the plains after the civil war?
The injured soldiers and freed slaves
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How did the Railroad help with the move to the Plains?
Easier to get their, could buy cheap land at the edge of the railroad
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Where were the Indians when people began to settle on the Plains?
On reservations further West
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Why did the southern states move to the plains?
lost land in civil war and crops were failing
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What problems did water shortages cause to the homesteaders?
Could lead to crop failure, starvation and brankruptcy - no rivers or wells
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What did Daniel Halliday invent in 1874?
The self governing windmill
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What is dry farming?
ploughing the land after heavy rain to store the moisture in the soil
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What were the weather extremes on the plains?
Drought in the summer and severe storms and cold in the winter
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What did the Russians introduce which meant that the weather was not a problem to homesteaders?
Hard Winter wheat
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Who invented the sod buster and what is it?
John Deere - a strong plough
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Who brought Cattle to america?
european ranchers
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At the end of the civil war what did the texas rancher return to find?
Their herds had grown dramatically
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Why did the cowboys have to drive the cattle to eastern states?
To sell them
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Why could they not drive the cattle north?
Fear of infecting other animals with texas fever
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Who were the first people to sell cattle to the soldiers and reservations?
Charles Goodnight and Oliver Loving
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Where did they take their cattle to get on the railroad?
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Who created Abilene, what is it, and when was it created?
Joseph McCoy - A cow town - 1867
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What was Abilene advertised as?
A shipping point for cattle
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What were the hazards faced on cattle drives?
Natural Hazards and Indians
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What is the name given to the cowboy who rides at the back of the herd?
The Drag Rider
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Who discovered that cattle coyld survive the winter in the north?
John W. Iliff
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When did John W. Iliff secure a contract to suply the reservations with cattle?
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Why did ranching begin?
Homesteaders blocked their ways
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When ranching began where were the buffalo?
They had all been killed
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Who invented the refridgerated railroad car?
Gustavas Swift
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How did the ranchers produce better quality meat but still be able to keep the cattle alive in the winter?
They interbred the texas longhorn with eatern animals
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How did the ranchers gain land?
Any unfenced land could be claimed as their own
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How would the ranchers identify their own cattle?
They would brand them
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When was their a drought whish put pressure on the ranchers grass?
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What happened to the price of cattle as the demand for beef fell?
The prices fell
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Which war made open range problems worse?
The Johnson County War
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Why did the Homesteaders not want the cattle drives to continue?
The cattle could damage their crops and bring texas fever
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In which states was sheep sheering common?
South western states
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Why were the sheep farmers hated a part of the competition for grass?
They were Mexicans, Mormons, Scotts and Basques
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Why would small ranches have to fence of their land?
To stop the larger ranches cutting them off
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Who were the original cow boys?
Spanish Vanqueros
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In what time of year would they drive their cattle for sale?
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What was the line riders job?
Stay on the ranch and make sure that no cattle escaped or were stolen
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What was the problems with branding cattle?
Young cattle could be stolen before they were branded, the sybols could easily be changed
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Why are Charles Russels painting more accurate than most?
He spent time as a rancher
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When was the peak in cattle ranching?
1880 - 1885
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Why were Jim Averill and Ella Watson killed?
He called cattle barons land grabbers and she accepted cattle as payment
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How many gunfighters were brought in to fight the johnson county war?
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Who supplied the fighters of the johnson county war with guns?
The governor of Wyoming
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Why did they cut the telephone wires in johnson county?
To stop the village calling for help
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Who was killed at the KC ranch first?
Nick Ray
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Who single handedly held off the attck so that the village could prepare?
Nate Champion
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What was the cattle barons conviction for this attack?
They were never convicted
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How did the vast areas lead to lawlessness?
It was difficult to enforce law
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What political factor led to lawlessness?
A shortage of enforcing officers
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How did the civil war effect lawlessness?
Many were unable to forgive the other side for what had happened
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If you shot a man in slef defence would you be prosecuted?
No, as long as the other man was armed
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Who were fence cutters?
The homesteaders
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Why were armed gaurds hired by coach companies?
In case of robberies
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What counter measures were enforced to stop train robberies?
Stronger doors and armed guards
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Why were the Sheriffs unaffective?
They had too much land to cover
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How many judges were allocated to each state or territory?
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Why was Sheriff Henry Plummer Lynched by Vigilantes?
He was a leader of a robbery gang
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What things did abilene have which made it a good cow town?
On railroad, river, fields, end of the trail, military protection
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Why did violence in Abilene grow worse at the end of the civil war?
Cowboys were confederated whilst abilenne locals were unionists
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What law did Wild Bill Hickock pass that reduced violence in Abilene?
A ban on carrying guns in town
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what did Abilene declare in 1872 to bring peace?
Cowboys were no longer welcome
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What precaution did Bill Hickock give Jhn Wesley Hardin?
If he killed a man in abilene he would be arrested
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Who wanted cutlural assimilation with the Indians?
The negotiators
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Who wanted a more miliatry approach to the removal of the Indians?
The exterminators
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When did little Crow launch an attack on the Indian Agency?
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Which fort did little crow fail to capture?
Fort Ridgely
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Who stopped 303 Indians from being killed?
Abraham Lincoln
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Who was shocked by the standaard of living on the new reservations?
Sitting Bull
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What did the us army do when peace talks were underway with red cloud?
Moved in on the Forts
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Which Fort did red clouds followerd surround?
Fort Phil Kearney
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Who found gold in the black hills and when?
George Armstrong Custer - 1874
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Why were the Forts built?
To protect overland routes and watch the reservations
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What were the disadvantages to the army recruits?
They were often drunk and many deserted
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How did volunteers on the reservations make matters worse?
They lacked discipline and were politically motivated
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What masacre did the volunteers create?
Sand Creek Masacre
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How did the winter affect the Indians in warfare?
They lost strength and food ran out so had to return to the reservations
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How were Indian scouts useful?
They knew the sioux tactics
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What artificial advantage did the Indians have over the Whites in the battle of little bighorn?
They had better weapons - winchester repeating rifles
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What batter did crook fight causing him to retreat?
The battle of Rosebud
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What was Custer offered by gibbon and terry but refused?
Extra men and artillary
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Why did custer divide his troops?
It had been a successful tactic at the battle of washita river
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How did the Indians surprise Custer?
They changed tactics
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Who had planned the three probged attack?
Gerneral Sheridan
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Why did Reno and Benteen not come to help?
Claimed they were under attack, could have just been annoyed with custer
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What were the buffalo hunted for?
Food and Sport
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Who was emolyed by the Kansas pacific railroad to supply workers with meat?
William Cody
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How did the Indians react to the destruction of the buffalo?
They attacked the hunters
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When was the southern buffalo herd destroyed?
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What were the conditions like on the sioux reservations?
Poor: no health care, little food, diseases
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How did the reservations destroy the indian society?
No need for visions, no horses for wealth, no buffalo for food, clothing and shelter
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What did the ban on dances and ceremonies mean?
Many converted to christians
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What would happen if the indian parents refused to let their children go to school?
Their rations would be stopped
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How did the chiefs lose power on the reservations?
Food was given directly to families, no need for visions or chances to prove themsleves
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Which act split the reservations into smaller chuncks?
Dawes Act
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What was the Ghost dance movement at the same time as?
A time of great hunger
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Who did the sioux turn to when sitting bull was shot dead?
Big foot
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What lies between the Seirra Nevada and the Rocky Mountains?


Plateau region - semi-desert in the north, canyons in the south

Card 3


Where did the Plains Indians originally come from?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


How did the Indians react when the europeans brought diseases?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


How did trade affect the Indian way of life?


Preview of the front of card 5
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