American environmentalism

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The US has some of the oldest environmental groups in the world; name 4
Sierra Club; Friends of the Earth; Greenpeace; Earth First!
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What did G.W.Bush say about the American way of life?
'The American way of life is not negotiable'
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What do the Koch brothers do?
Contribute significantly to Republican candidates; lobby against universal health care & climate change legislation.
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What did the 2010 Citizens United Supreme Court decision rule?
That corporations are the same as people and therefore Government can't restrict independent political expenditures.
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What happened in Tennessee regarding a coal ash spill?
Ash duke ruptured an 84 acre solid waste containment area in Tennessee. 1.1 billion US gallons of coal fly ash slurry released. Damaged homes & flowed up & downstream in nearby waterways. Largest fly ash release in US history.
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What % of water goes to agriculture in California?
80%
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How was Bush's climate policy regarded?
As a direct threat to economy/employment
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When was the Global Climate Coalition formed?
1990s
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What view was the GCC formed for?
To establish a view of climate change science as uncertain, prevent domestic climate legislation, block Kyoto Protocol.
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What was the Kyoto Protocol, 1997?
An international treaty committing state parties to reduce greenhouse gases emissions based on the premise that a) global warming exists & b) man-made CO2 emissions have caused it.
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Why was the Kyoto Protocol not sent for Senate Ratification?
Because of the Byrd-Hagel Resolution which stated that the US wouldn't do anything if developing countires wouldn't as seen to damage the US economy.
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What did Bush say about the Kyoto Protocol?
That it exempts 80% of the world including China and India.
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What did Obama's Green New Deal focus on?
Economic opportunities arising from developing clean energy sources, new technology and moving towards low carbon economy.
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What was Obama-Biden New Energy for America Plan (2008)?
80% of reduction in GHG emissions necessary by 2050; $150bn over 10 years in clean energy, energy research & development funding, developing clean coal technology, revisiting nuclear energy, major increase in fuel economy standards.
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What did the Copenhagen Accord, 2009 say?
Includes voluntary GHG emissions reduction targets for big emitters; calls for the establisment of ways of measuring and verifying all countires' emissions cuts against their commitments & opens paths for financing of mitigation
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What did the New Source Polutions Standards, 1970 say?
Ruled that existing plants had to ensure that the toal ambient level of sulphur dioxide polition in the local atmosphere must not exceed a certain threshold & that new plants were required to achieve reductions in emissions.
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How do Bomberg & Schlosberg (2008) describe environmentalism in the US?
dynamic, vibrant & changing fast.
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What does Rootes (2003) challenge?
The claim that West European environmentalism is dead or 'past its peak'
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What did Wissenburg & Levy (2004) analyse?
A possible 'theoretical pasification' - a process whereby green concerns are incorporated into principles & practieces of European liberal democracy but are diluted en route.
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What does Bryner note regarding grenneery?
The stricking lack of it under Clinton or within earlier Democratic controlled Congresses.
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What does Rabe (2004) suggest about environmental activism at state level?
That state experience in climate change initiatives have generally been bipartisan & consensual. State level initiatives surpass European ambitions.
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What is the Californian initiative on global warming?
AB 32. It requires California to reduce its GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2010. A reduction of approximately 15%
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What is the new institutionalist notion of 'path dependence'?
The idea that previous choices shape or even determine future moves. Means that it is hard to change strategy or policy even when it outlives its usefullness because time & resources already invested.
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According to Roberts (2011), why was the 'new world disorder' evident at Copenhagen 2009?
Insecurity of US in the face of its economic & political decline vis-a-vis China; Fragmentation of G77 & Weakening of EU - formally world leader in climate action.
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What is 'criminal injustice'?
Those who are least responsible for the problem are suffering the worst impacts of climate change, with the least capacity to address those impacts.
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What did the UN framework convention 1992 say?
That 'parties would avoid dangerous climate change'
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What is special about the UN framework convention?
It is the only global climate agreement the US has ratified.
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Why did George H.W. Bush sign the UN framework convention?
Because there was no binding limits placed on the US.
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Card 2

Front

What did G.W.Bush say about the American way of life?

Back

'The American way of life is not negotiable'

Card 3

Front

What do the Koch brothers do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did the 2010 Citizens United Supreme Court decision rule?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What happened in Tennessee regarding a coal ash spill?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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