American West - End of the Plains Indians (LJJ)

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What were the main reasons for the end of the Plains Indians?
Destruction of the buffalo, Indian reservations, Massacre at Wounded Knee, end of Indian way of life
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How many buffalo were on The Plains in 1840 compared to 1885?
13 million (1840) to 200 (1885)
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What caused the destruction of the buffalo?
Hunting, settlement and the railway - destruction of habitat & new diseases
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Why were the buffalo hunted?
Sport, food, hides - for tanning industry in East, bones - made into fertilisers, buttons, combs and knife handles in East
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What was the Plains Indians' response to the destruction of the buffalo?
Warfare on the Plains - some Indians attacked buffalo hunters (1874)
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What the consequence of the destruction of the buffalo?
Indians had no source of food or shelter - forced to move onto reservations
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What was the intention of the Indian reservations?
To keep Indians and non-Indians apart - stop conflict
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What were the Indians allowed to do on the reservations at first? Why did they lose this right?
Leave the reservation to hunt buffalo, lost the right because of conflicts in 1860's and 70's
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Why did the Indians become dependent on the gov. handouts?
Reservation land was poor - couldn't feed themselves
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How were Indians treated by Indian Agents?
Badly - housing monies were stolen, inadequate food rations, medical treatment not available (new diseases from settlers)
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What are the main factors for the destruction of Indian Culture?
Political, Educational, Religious, Economic and Territorial
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How did the 'Political' factor affect the destruction of Indian Culture?
Indinas lost power to punish band members, communal reservations were broken into individual plots (1887 Dawnes General Act), Indians didn't need thier chiefs - became seld-sufficient, gov. took legal matters into own hands (1885)
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How did the 'Religious' factor affect the destruction of Indian Culture?
Feasts, dances and ceremonies were banned, power of medicine men was undermined, little need for young to seek visions for power in war and in buffalo hunt
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How did the 'Educational' factor affect the destruction of Indian Culture?
Children taken and sent to boarding school (couldn't stop this or annuities would be stopped), children lived under military conditions, children taught to have no respect for traditional way of life
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How did the 'Economic' factor affect the destruction of Indian Culture?
Sioux were banned from leaving their reservations, unable to hunt for buffalo - destroyed their economy
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How did the 'Territorial' factor affect the destruction of Indian Culture?
Gov. reduced size of Great SIoux Reservation through a series of laws, Sioux Indians were split up into smaller groups
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When was the Massacre of Wounded Knee?
Dec. 1890
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What did the Massacre of Wounded Knee end?
Ghost Dance and Indian wars
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What caused the Massacre of Wounded Knee?
Sioux's free-roaming life destroyed and so the Ghost Dance was created which the whites didn't like
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How was the Ghost Dance created?
Wakova (a shaman) preached that the dead would join the living in a world where they could live traditionally & a tidal wave of new soil will cover the earth, bury the whites and restore the praire - needed to do Ghost Dance
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What did the Ghost Dancers wear?
Brightly coloured shirts with images of eagles and buffalo on them - belived to protect them from US army bullets
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What did the spreading of the Ghost Dance through Sioux villages in 1890 do?
Created hope amongst Indians and fear in the whites - US army attacked as they wanted to arrest Ghost Dance leaders
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When did Chief Sitting Bull die?
Killed by US army on 15th Dec. 1890
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What did Chief Big Foot do after hearing of Sitting Bull's death?
Led his people south to seek protection at the Pine Ridge Reservation
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What did the US army do on the 28th Dec 1890?
Intercepted Big Foot's band and brought them to the edge of the Wounded Knee Creek to camp
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What happened on the 29th Dec. 1890?
Army attacked the Big Foot's band with machine guns from the surrounding hills
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How many were killed in the Wounded Knee Massacre?
300 Sioux (includin Chief Big Foot) and 25 soldiors
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How did Manifest Destiny affect the destruction of the Indian Culture?
Americans believed it was their god-given right to inhabit the US - justification of: treating Indians badly, Indian wars
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How did the end of the US Civil War (1865) affect the destruction of the Indian Culture?
Ex-soldiors and freed slaves seeked to build a new life on the Great Plains, attention of gov. turned to west
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How did government policies affect the destruction of the Indian Culture?
Gov. supported miners, homesteaders and ranchers - eg. Homestead Act, didn't give enough money to Indians on reservations, didn't allow Indians to live in traditional way (reservations), created conflict with Indians
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How did Homesteading affect the destruction of the Indian Culture?
Wanted land for farming - cut down living space for Indians, driving force to move Indians onto reservations
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How did cattle ranching affect the destruction of the Indian Culture?
Wanted land to graze cattle - cut down Indians living space, drives scared away buffalo, some demanded US army to deal with Plains Indians
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How did the discovery of gold affect the destruction of the Indian Culture?
Brought thousands of miners onto the Plains, mining town took up lots of land, development of mines broke treaties - brought miners into direct conflict with Indians
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How did the US Army affect the destruction of the Indian Culture?
Too powerful for Indians to fight and too many, system of forts gave US army bases to control Great Plains, fought against Plains Indians, winter campaigns helped defeat Plains Indians
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How did Indian organisation affect the destruction of the Indian Culture?
Never able to fight long campaigns against US army - had families to protect and feed, lacked organisation for long campaigns and prolonged warfare
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How did the Transcontinental Railway affect the destruction of the Indian Culture?
Builder financed work by selling land to homesteaders - therefore wanted to force Indians out, brought buffalo hunters and were a way of shipping hides to east, supplied US army with bases and supplies for conflict
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How did Indian warfare affect the destruction of the Indian Culture?
Fought differently to US army, unwilling to suffer casualties and couldn't replace loses, couldn't fight army on equal terms, usually less armed - soldiors had rifles (Indians didn't)
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How did reservations affect the destruction of the Indian Culture?
Kept Indians away from settlers, allowed gov. to control Indians, no weapons - dependent on hand-outs, protests stopped by taking away rations
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How did the destruction of the buffalo affect the destruction of the Indian Culture?
Buffalo provided necessities for life - when destoryed Indians became dependent on gov. hand-outs - ended traditional way of life
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How did different Indian nations affect the destruction of the Indian Culture?
Never combined to fight US army, some faught with US army against Sioux Indians, whilst Sioux fought army they continued to fight traditional enemies
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How many buffalo were on The Plains in 1840 compared to 1885?

Back

13 million (1840) to 200 (1885)

Card 3

Front

What caused the destruction of the buffalo?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why were the buffalo hunted?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What was the Plains Indians' response to the destruction of the buffalo?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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