- Created by: CharlotteCollins4
- Created on: 06-05-18 21:14
Where does a move to impeach someone start?
House of Representatives
1 of 292
What type of vote is needed in the HoR to move forward in an impeachment?
2 of 292
Once approved by the HoR, where does an impeachment trial move to?
3 of 292
What type of vote is needed in the Senate for an impeachment?
4 of 292
Name three presidents with impeachment trials brought against them
Johnson, Clinton and Nixon
5 of 292
Name two presidents who were acquitted of impeachment
Johnson and Clinton
6 of 292
What percentage of adults did not vote in the 2016 election?
7 of 292
What percentage of American voters voted for Clinton?
8 of 292
How many more people chose Clinton over Trump?
9 of 292
In a direct electoral system, what would happen to geographical votes?
The north would outnumber the south
10 of 292
What did the Electoral College enable southern states to do?
Count slaves as 3/5 person
11 of 292
What percentage of Americans are black?
12 of 292
What percentage of Americans are Hispanic?
13 of 292
What percentage of Americans are Native Americans?
14 of 292
What percentage of Americans can name all three branches of government?
15 of 292
Name some American political values
Distrust of government, commitment to liberty, federalism, self-rule, limited government, religion, patriotism, republicanism, anti-interllectualism and laissez-faire economics
16 of 292
What is meant by distrust in government?
Private is good and public is bad
17 of 292
Why is there such a commitment to liberty in American politics?
Owing to the founding of libertarianism by the founding fathers which tried to limit government
18 of 292
Give an example of individualism in action
People voting for Trump as he pushed away from the establishment
19 of 292
What is meant by the belief in equality of the American people?
Equality of opportunity, not outcomes
20 of 292
Where is belief in religion as an American political view founded?
21 of 292
Why did the Puritans come to America?
To practice religious freedom
22 of 292
Who were the Pilgrims?
Those in England who wished to separate from the Church of England who thus moved to America
23 of 292
What is Republicanism?
Belief in individual states and freedom of states
24 of 292
Who were the Puritans?
A group who wanted to make reforms to the Church of England and make it less Catholic in practice
25 of 292
Where did the Puritans settle?
26 of 292
What kind of government did the Puritans establish?
A religious one, where they obeyed the laws of God
27 of 292
What was the name of the Puritans colony?
Massachusetts Bay Colony
28 of 292
Give an example of American anti-intellectual political values impacting national politics
The 1952 election where Adlai Stevenson II was ridiculed for being an 'egghead' and Eisenhower was elected
29 of 292
Name some of the major thematic clashes between American values and expectations
Tension between structures and public expectations of politicians, philosophy of limited government vs public expectations of democracy, nation of immigrants vs inequality and tolerance of some's suffering vs freedom of all
30 of 292
What percentage of people own 85% of the wealth?
31 of 292
Who is the #1 scholar to reference about American political values?
Alexis De Tocqueville
32 of 292
What is the name of De Tocqueville's book?
Democracy in America
33 of 292
When was Democracy in America published?
34 of 292
What country was De Tocqueville comparing to America?
35 of 292
What was the central theme which was intended to be examined by De Tocqueville?
Aristocracy in America
36 of 292
What did De Tocqueville conclude about aristocracy in America?
That Americans do not believe in aristocracy but a distribution of wealth
37 of 292
What did De Tocqueville conclude that a lack of aristocracy leads to in America?
Love of money, education and profession for all equally
38 of 292
Due to a lack of aristocracy, what did De Tocqueville conclude that upper classes' strategy would be?
Not maintaining power (as in France), but instead winning good will
39 of 292
What did De Tocqueville conclude about American politicians?
That they are not from the elite classes, they love their country as they are their country, they are more likely to be corrupt as they are not statesmen, they believe in religion to ensure moral order, men of the people and legacies are important
40 of 292
What did De Tocqueville conclude about American's attitude towards money?
Taste for material well-being is endemic, everyone in America thinks they are middle class, Aristocrats enjoy wealth without thinking
41 of 292
How did De Tocqueville believe that an aristocracy may form in America?
From the industry
42 of 292
How would an aristocracy form from the industry?
Workers would ebcome more specialised and therefore more limited and dependent on the industry to sustain them. Meanwhile, the owners become more profitable and powerful, leading to a new aristocracy
43 of 292
Why did De Tocqueville write Democracy in America?
In order to show the French people the fading prominence of Aristocracy in favor of Democracy
44 of 292
What does De Tocqueville's writings offer?
45 of 292
What are Presages?
46 of 292
What did De Tocqueville predict?
Capitalism, the rise of individualism in politics, the growth of classism in America
47 of 292
What is an Overton Window?
The window through which an idea has political viability, if an idea is seen as acceptable/ popular then it will have fallen in the overton window. Radical ideas fall outside of the overton window.
48 of 292
Who has the ability to shift the jurisdiction of the overton window?:
49 of 292
What type of censorship is the overton window an example of?
50 of 292
Give examples of other influential thinkers on values in American politics
John Locke, John Stuart Mill and James Maddison
51 of 292
What did John Locke advocate?
That government needs the consent of the people in order to function
52 of 292
What did John Stuart Mill assert regarding discourse in American politics?
That free discourse is essential to intellectual and social progress
53 of 292
Give an example of where free discourse has enabled social progress
Women's suffrage, civil rights and prohibition
54 of 292
What did James Maddison believe regarding free expression?
That it is impossible and wrong to limit, therefore all should be encouraged to exercise it
55 of 292
What are the main desires of the Liberal perspective in American politics?
More governmental involvement, taxes to help the unfortunate, societal norms should evolve, war should be avoided, emphasis on civil liberties and values differences amongst citizens
56 of 292
What are the main desires of the Conservative perspective in American politics?
Less government involvement, less taxation, people are responsible for themselves, traditional norms are best, national security must be protected and values conform
57 of 292
What day of the week do Americans vote on?
58 of 292
What does voting on a Tuesday do to voting?
Makes it hard for working class to vote and makes it unrepresentative
59 of 292
Who cannot vote in America?
Felons, immigrants, those who have not registered
60 of 292
What do you need in order to vote in America?
61 of 292
What does the need for voter ID do to voting in America?
Excludes immigrants, disabled and often the elderly who may not have ID
62 of 292
Who wants to make it harder to vote?
63 of 292
Why do Republicans want to make it harder to vote?
Because those who do not vote would likely vote for the Democrats
64 of 292
What percentage of Americans could name the VP?
65 of 292
What, according to Reagan, are the nine more terrifying words in the English language?
I'm from the government and I'm here to help
66 of 292
What are belief gaps driven by?
67 of 292
What are knowledge gaps driven by?
Education and the media
68 of 292
What percentage of Democrat voters believe that global warming is happening?
69 of 292
What percentage of Republicans believe that global warming is happening?
70 of 292
Give an example of a conspiracy in American politics
That Obama was born outside of the US and that he is a Muslim
71 of 292
What is the concept of the perceptual screen?
The idea that we depend on our social groups and thus see the world reflected upon their values and needs
72 of 292
Give reasons why there may be a knowledge gap in American politics
Perceptual screen, misperceptions, better to fit in than be correct, accuracy vs self esteem, education, wealth gap, media polarization etc
73 of 292
What type of affiliations do the media enforce?
74 of 292
What are the public increasingly feeling towards the American media?
75 of 292
What does a distrust in the general media lead many American's to do?
Choose one specific news outlet that they trust and that represents their ideology
76 of 292
What is the hostile media effect?
Partisans on both sides tend to see all other media, even 'neutral media' as biased against thrm
77 of 292
Who has studied why Americans hate the media?
78 of 292
What year was Ladd's work published?
79 of 292
When was the so called golden age of media?
Watergate, Vietnam, Civil Rights etc (1960s), when the media was investigative and informative
80 of 292
What class group controlled the American Revolution?
81 of 292
When was the Declaration of Independence signed?
82 of 292
What was the Articles of Confederation?
The agreement amongst the thirteen states which became the USA's first constitution
83 of 292
What year was the Articles of Confederation signed?
84 of 292
What was wrong with the AoC? (7)
Weak central government, no power over states, no judiciary, no taxation power, couldn't coin currency, couldn't regulate commerce, needed unanimity of 13 states
85 of 292
Why was it so hard to strengthen central government after the AoC?
More power to the government was seen as a move against the revolution and its aims
86 of 292
Who were the founding fathers?
Those seven men who led the revolution against Britain
87 of 292
Who was the most influential founding father with regards to the constitution?
88 of 292
Name the founding fathers
Adams, Jefferson, Washington, Hamilton, Franklin, Jay and Maddison
89 of 292
How many states were there in the first USA?
90 of 292
What is the most important document when carrying out constitutional interpretation?
The federalist papers
91 of 292
What are the federalist papers?
Over 80 essays and texts published by some of the founding fathers which promoted the ratification of a constitution
92 of 292
What was the main worry of states when ratifying the national constitution?
Losing the power of states
93 of 292
Give an example of a state which originally did not want to ratify a national constitution
94 of 292
When was the Constitutional Convention?
95 of 292
What did failure to attend the Constitutional Convention do to states?
Weakened their position and ability to barter
96 of 292
Was the CC publicized?
No it was kept secret
97 of 292
Why was the CC kept secret?
In order to protect freedom of speech at the convention without feeling that they would face public repercussions
98 of 292
Why was the CC successful?
Wasn't ideological, relatively little self-interest, increased the power of the executive
99 of 292
When did a federal system of government emerge?
The Constitutional Convention
100 of 292
What were the two plans proposed for the constitution?
The Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan
101 of 292
What was the New Jersey plan?
Each state is equally represented, legislature appoints the executive, power derived from states, one chamber
102 of 292
What was the Virginia Plan?
Power derived from the people, population apportioned to seats, upper chosen by lower, executive has a veto over Congress
103 of 292
Which plan ended up being most like the constitution?
The Virginia Plan
104 of 292
What was the main issue when drafting the first constitution?
Conflict between representation of small vs larger states
105 of 292
What kind of government did Hamilton support?
A centralist one, like that of Britain (monarchist)
106 of 292
What external theorist greatly influenced the constitution?
107 of 292
What did Locke advocate?
The protection of citizen's rights
108 of 292
When was the first presidential election?
109 of 292
How many senators are there per state?
110 of 292
What is the amount of representatives in the HoR based on?
111 of 292
How many years is a senator's term?
112 of 292
How many years is a representative's term?
113 of 292
What is the lower house of congress?
114 of 292
What is the upper chamber of congress?
115 of 292
What are the three branches of government?
Executive, Congress and the Judiciary
116 of 292
What do the branches of government do to each other?
Check and balance each other
117 of 292
What are the powers of congress?
To pass legislation, control the budget, override vetos, confirm appointments, ratify treaties and impeachment
118 of 292
Who is the 45th president?
119 of 292
Who is the 44th president?
120 of 292
What are the powers of the president?
Veto Congress, executive order, write regulations and nominate federal justices
121 of 292
What are the powers of the SC?
Declare executive orders unconstitutional and judicial review
122 of 292
What did the second amendment do?
Gave citizens the right to bare arms
123 of 292
What is an executive order?
It is a law made by the president which can bypass Congress
124 of 292
Are executive orders written into the constitution?
125 of 292
Where may executive orders be dervied from in the constitution?
126 of 292
How can executive orders be overridden?
127 of 292
So far, how many executive orders has Trump issued?
128 of 292
How many EOs did Obama issue during his presidency?
129 of 292
How many EOs did Trump use in his first week as president?
130 of 292
Name some of the EOs used by Trump
Unlocking Keystone Pipeline project, repealing Obamacare, reinstating Mexico City Policy and border security
131 of 292
What is a judicial review?
The ability of the SC to review government laws an declare them unconstitutional
132 of 292
Give an example of a judicial review
Marbury v Maddison and Brown v Board of Education
133 of 292
How many members are there of the HoR?
134 of 292
How often are midterms held?
Every two years
135 of 292
How much of the senate is up for election every two years?
136 of 292
How often are presidential elections held?
Every 4 years
137 of 292
Who was the only President to serve more than two terms?
138 of 292
How do you become a member of the judiciary?
139 of 292
What kind of terms do judges serve?
140 of 292
Why are judges appointed and not elected?
In order to avoid external biases
141 of 292
How much of the Senate is needed in oder to ratify a treaty?
142 of 292
What is a supermajority?
143 of 292
What is needed in order to perform a constitutional amendment?
2/3 approval from both houses and then 3/4 of states
144 of 292
How many amendments were made in the civil war?
145 of 292
What do amendments typically do?
Increased rights and suffrage
146 of 292
What is the Bill of Rights?
The first ten amendments to be made to the US constitution
147 of 292
What does the 5th amendment enable?
The defendant to protect themselves from self-incrimination
148 of 292
What did the BoR do?
Gave widespread rights to citizens
149 of 292
Who published the federalist papers?
150 of 292
Who advocated for a bill of rights?
151 of 292
What are the functions of Congress?
Constituent services, policy making, oversight etc
152 of 292
What is the least favourite branch of government?
153 of 292
What percntage of people preferred cockroaches to Congress?
154 of 292
Why is Congress unpopular?
Polarization, very little voting across party lines, control of houses often doesn't match and ineffective
155 of 292
What is happening to the amount of laws passed by congress?
156 of 292
What is a split Congress?
When the house and senate majority doesn't match, making the government inefficient
157 of 292
What kind of candidates does the american poltical system produce?
158 of 292
Who is a good scholar to reference about congressmen's goals?
159 of 292
When was Fenno's work published?
160 of 292
What did Fenno believe are members goals?
Reelection, power and prestige in Washington, good public policy
161 of 292
According to Fenno, what can members use to help them achieve their goals
162 of 292
What chamber system does the US Congress have?
163 of 292
From what compromise did the bicameral system come from?
164 of 292
What are the functions of the media?
Agenda setting, priming and framing
165 of 292
Give an example of agenda setting by the media
The more an issue is covered by the media, the more likely it is that people will see this as the issue of the day and the government will take notice (Lyengar and Kinder)
166 of 292
What is priming
Shaping how the public perceive an issue or person
167 of 292
What do representatives represent?
168 of 292
What quality are many of the people in districts?
169 of 292
What quality are the people in states?
170 of 292
Owing to the homogenous nature of districts, what is it easy for representatives to do?
Successfully represent their districts without contestation (minority interests etc)
171 of 292
Owing to the heterogenous nature of their states, what do senators have to be?
172 of 292
What are the two models of representation in Congress?
Agent model and sociological model
173 of 292
What is the sociological model of representation?
Where the representative shares characteristics of backgrounds and interests with their constituents
174 of 292
What is the substantive model of representation?
Representatives advocate policy preferences of the constituents and are accountable through elections
175 of 292
What is the delegate model of representation?
Representatives should do just as representatives would
176 of 292
In elections, who has an advantage?
177 of 292
What does a good candidate need?
Name recognition, success in prior elected offices, ability to raise money, willingness to campaign and ability to reach out to voters
178 of 292
What privileges do incumbents have?
Franking privilege, pork barrell politics, patronage, name recognition and constituency services
179 of 292
What is patronage?
The act of offering someone a job
180 of 292
Who is the speaker of the house typically?
Leader of the majority party
181 of 292
Who is the current speaker of the house?
182 of 292
Who is president of the Senate currently?
183 of 292
How are the majority and minority leaders chosen?
Through party elections
184 of 292
Who decides the congressmen who sit in specific committees?
185 of 292
Who chairs the senate?
186 of 292
What kind of role is the chair of the senate?
187 of 292
Who serves as chair of the senate when the VP is not acting symbolically?
The senate president pro tempore
188 of 292
Who is the current president of the senate pro tempore?
189 of 292
What are the different types of committees?
Standing committees, select committees, joint committees and conference committees
190 of 292
What are standing committees?
Permanent committees where the majority of legislation is written
191 of 292
What is a select committees?
Temporary committees formed to focus on specific issues, they bring attention to a specific subject
192 of 292
Name some of the standing committees
Agriculture, armed forces, appropriations, science, banking etc
193 of 292
What are joint committees?
Committees with members from both chambers which gathers information and covers issues integral to congress
194 of 292
Give an example of a joint committee
Joint committee on taxation
195 of 292
What are conference committees?
Committees which are formed in order to secure the final wording of bills passed through congress
196 of 292
What is the proportion of party representation on committees based on?
Representation in Congress (roughly)
197 of 292
What is your committee assignment based on?
198 of 292
Are the chairs of committees limited and if so how?
Yes, by term limits and the ability of the party caucus to remove them
199 of 292
What kind of people do congressmen rely on?
Congressional staffers who are experts in their specific field
200 of 292
What is the name of the research branch of congress?
Congressional research service
201 of 292
What are congressional caucuses?
Groups of senators which have common interests and goals that may use their influence to accomplish policy goals
202 of 292
Which committee determines how long a bill will be discussed for?
The full committee
203 of 292
What can the president do to a bill?
Sign it, ignore it (it will go through anyway) or veto it
204 of 292
How much is needed for congress to override a veto?
2/3 in both chambers
205 of 292
What is a pocket veto?
If there is less than ten days left in the congressional calendar and the president does not sign the bull, then it dies
206 of 292
How many days does the president have to veto a bill before it becomes law?
207 of 292
What did the 15th amendment do?
Ensured civil right to vote for african americans
208 of 292
What did amendment 23 do?
Enabled residents of DC to vote for president but not congress
209 of 292
What did amendment 26 do?
Lowered the voting age to 18 (Vietnam)
210 of 292
How many local governments are there?
211 of 292
What was the 19th amendment?
Enabled women to vote
212 of 292
What did the voting rights act of 1965 do?
Ensured the implementation of amendments 14 and 15 by prohibiting the introduction of laws which are discriminatory
213 of 292
Which president enforced the voting rights act?
214 of 292
Which scholar believes that rational voters would never turn up to vote?
215 of 292
What is gerrymandering?
Giving unfair advantages to one party by redrawing district lines based on voter behaviour
216 of 292
what can be gerrymandering be used to o?
Dilute the influence of a minority etc
217 of 292
What is the gerrymandering bias percentage?
218 of 292
Give an example of an odd gerrymandering district?
The mask of zorro (lousiana's 4th)
219 of 292
What does Duverger's law predict?
That plurality rule systems will tend to produce two party systems
220 of 292
What is median voter theorem?
The concept that with the spectrum of issues and perspectives, in ordeer to gain the most votes, the candidates will be pushed towards the middle
221 of 292
Is the party organisation strong in the USA?
No, it is weak and limited whip system
222 of 292
In what decade did parties become stronger and more ideologically coherent?
223 of 292
What type of voting system does the uSA have?
224 of 292
What does a majoritarian do negatively?
Excludes smaller parties and often misrepresents the size of the vote
225 of 292
Give an example of where the majoritarian system meant that the votes and seats did not match up
2014 when Reps won 51% of vote but 57% of the seats
226 of 292
What does a candidate need before running for office?
A cenrtain amount of signatures and other state-based requirements
227 of 292
What is the timeline of the presidential election?
Invisible primaries, primaries and cacuses, national conventions and election campaign
228 of 292
What is a primary similar to?
A party election in a state
229 of 292
What is a caucus similar to?
A town hall meeting
230 of 292
What type of state nomination process is more difficult?
231 of 292
What type of party nomination process does Texas use?
232 of 292
How many districts does Alaska have?
233 of 292
How many electoral college votes are needed to win?
234 of 292
How many electors does California have?
235 of 292
What determines how many electors a state has?
236 of 292
Which party has superdelegates?
237 of 292
What is a superdelegate?
A delegate who can overrdie the decision of the state and vote the way they want to vote for a nominiee
238 of 292
What does the electoral nomination process do to party politics?
Undermines it and takes power away from the party
239 of 292
Over what number did both Obama and Romney spend on their campaigns?
Over a billion
240 of 292
When was Buckley vs Valeo?
241 of 292
What did Buckley v Valeo rule?
Tjhat money is a form of speech
242 of 292
When was the Campaign Reform Act passed?
243 of 292
What is another name of the Campaign Reform Act?
McCain Feingold Act
244 of 292
When was Citizens United v Fed Election Commission?
245 of 292
What did citizens united v fed election committee rule?
That limits on spending are wrong and corporations can spend as much as they want
246 of 292
What are the disadvantages of the electoral college?
Ignores smaller states, can be disprportionate, encourages two party system, complicated and undemocratic
247 of 292
Did the constitution mention the size of the court?
248 of 292
How many justices were there on the first SC?
249 of 292
Which president tried to pack the court with his supporters?
250 of 292
By 1863, how many justices were there?
251 of 292
Who was the last judge to be replaced in the SC?
252 of 292
who did Obama try to replace Scalia with?
253 of 292
Who was nominated by Trump to replace Scalia?
254 of 292
What does Obama's inability to nominate a justice demonstrate?
That the nomination process has become more political over time
255 of 292
how many justices are there on the SC?
256 of 292
What is said to be the least dangerous branch of American government?
257 of 292
Does the judicary have any enforcement?
258 of 292
Who appoints justices?
259 of 292
Who is referenced as saying that the judiciary is the least dangerous?
260 of 292
Who has to approve SC nominations?
261 of 292
Which SC case outlawed segregation?
Brown v Board of Education
262 of 292
What year was Brown v Board?
263 of 292
Where did the miranda rights come from?
Miranda v Arizona
264 of 292
Which case legalised abortion?
Roe v Wade
265 of 292
Is the power to use a judicial review written in the constitution?
266 of 292
What case established a power of using a judicial review?
Marbury v Madiosn
267 of 292
What does the ability to use a judicial review make the SC?
A law making body
268 of 292
Why is the SC the least legitimate form of power?
Because they are unelected
269 of 292
What are the three odels of judicial decision making?
Legal, attitudinal and rational choice
270 of 292
What is the legal model of judicial decision making?
Take in to account the facts, precedent and constitutional intent
271 of 292
What is wrong with the legal model of ecision making?
Laws are subject to interpretation
272 of 292
What is the rational choice model of deicsion making?
Judges persue ideal points, avoid being overruled
273 of 292
What is wrong with the rational choice model?
It assumes ttha judges have perfect information, that they face no reercsusions for their actions and that judicial preferences aren't a factor
274 of 292
What is the attitudinal model of decision making?
Personal policy preferences of judges are filtered by rules and situations
275 of 292
Which model of judicial decision making did Segal and Spaeth find most support for?
The attituduinal model
276 of 292
What is the meaning of loose construction regarding the constitution?
Constitutio is a living document thtat changes
277 of 292
What is the meaning of strict construction in ref to the constitution?
Origional intent of founding fathers should be based upon
278 of 292
Which case justified judicial activism?
279 of 292
What is judicial restraint?
Taking the ncostitution as it is and trying not to change anything
280 of 292
What is judicial activism?
Using the SC as a political body in order to protect and enact change
281 of 292
Give examples of judicial activism
REversing past ddecisions, deciding political questions and requiring remedies
282 of 292
What is Congress' dilemma regarding bills?
If they make them too broad, then the exec can subvert them, if they are too specific then they cannot adapt over time
283 of 292
Why is the court cautious as tho overturn presidential decisions?
Because the Conrgess can also do so
284 of 292
What can the court more easily respond to rather than electorally bound congressmen?
Changing social norms
285 of 292
When is the court unlikely to apprehend the president?
During times of war
286 of 292
What is it called when a SC agrees to hear a case?
Writ of Ceritorari
287 of 292
What must an appeal to the SC regard?
Substantial federal question
288 of 292
What percentage of cases are granted a hearing from the SC?
289 of 292
What is an Amicus Curaie brief?
More money from external parties and so can provide the court ith more information
290 of 292
How can an Amicus Curaie increase success?
Becuase they have more money and so can prvide the court with more information
291 of 292
Give an example of a nominnee for SC that had to pull out
292 of 292
Other cards in this set
What type of vote is needed in the HoR to move forward in an impeachment?
Once approved by the HoR, where does an impeachment trial move to?
What type of vote is needed in the Senate for an impeachment?
Name three presidents with impeachment trials brought against them