American Civil Rights

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Who was James Meredith & what was 'Ole Miss'?
1962:James Meredith tried to enroll to Uni of Mississippi- Gov. Ross Barnett wouldn't allow it; took case to supreme court which ruled in his favour- Kennedy intervened & sent troops to protect him> violent clashes on campus:2 people died
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What and when were the Freedom Rides?
1961: Black & white activists traveled by bus from DC to New Orleans- faced violence & firebombing. All signs were taken down by Sept '61
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What was the Albany movement?
1961-2: Vague aim to desegregate public areas; direct action & freedom rides
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Why did the Albany movement not succeed? (3)
Police Chief Prikett refused to react violently, lack of media coverage & lack of cooperation between King & locals
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What was the Civil Rights Act of 1960?
introduction of federal inspection of local voter registration polls & penalties for obstructing someone's attempt to register to vote> Commission of Civil Rights increased in power> done to monitor black voter registration- only increased 3% by 1960
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Name the main sit-ins during 1960 (5)
Greensboro, Woolworths counters, Wade-ins, Kneel-ins & Watch-ins
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What does SNCC stand for & when/why was it established?
1960, Student non-violent Campaign Commitee- to coordinate sit ins etc, membership or black & white students
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What was the Civil Rights Act of 1957?
Became a federal offence to obstruct voting- 6 months in jail or $1000 (but white jury unlikely to convict)- Set up 'Commission on Civil Rights' to monitor black voter registration
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When and what was 'Little Rock'?
1957:9 high school students sought to test Brown by enrolling in Little Rock HS- Gov Faubus used Nat Guard to stop them, Eisenhower intervened> ultimately successful after massive white backlash & military protection
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What does SCLC stand for and when was it established?
1956: Southern Church Leadership Conference- group of church leaders inc. MLK; not membership organisation
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What and when was the Montgomery Bus Boycott?
1955: Political & social protest against racial segregation on public transit systems in Montgomery Alabama> Lasted over a year, (Rosa Parks), founding of SCLC by MLK- bus companies lost 65% revenue: caused de facto & de jure change- Browder vs Gayle
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When and what was the Southern Manifesto?
1954: Part of white backlash against Brown vs Board: group of senators (organised by Byrd) signed declaring Brown vs Board was unconstitutional
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When and what was the Brown vs Board of Education (Topeka)?
Supreme court ruled segregation of schools illegal> end of 'separate but equal'; de jure change & slow de facto change, hence Brown II 1955-"all deliberate speed"
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What did Truman propose in 1948?
Civil Rights Bill> bill was opposed by republicans & southern democrats- didn't pass congress
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What and when was 'Morgan vs Virginia'?
major US supreme court case-outlawed segregation of interstate transport> de jure change
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What is the difference between de jure and de facto segregation?
De jure: , De facto:
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When and what was the 'Journey of Recognition'?
1947: non-violent direct action campaign organised by CORE; highlighted lack of de facto change following Morgan vs Virginia
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Name a direct action of the NAACP
Store boycotts (New Orleans)- 1947- Stores didn't allow black people to try on hats
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What does CORE stand for and when was it established?
(1941) Congress of Racial Equality- James Farmer & others
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What happened in Birmingham, 1963?
Targeted campaign aimed at desegregating shops & public facilities- Bill O'connor was expected & did react w/ violence> MLK write from Birmingham jail justifying direct action. SCLC James Bevel suggested using young people
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What were the consequences of Birmingham 1963? (4)
1300 young people arrested, dogs & firehoses, JFK sickened by violence & supported Civil Rights Bill, Stores desegregated: southern backlash-bombed 16th Baptist church- USSR media coverage
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What was the 14th Amendment & when was it initiated?
1868- All citizens were equal regardless of race
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What was the 15th Amendment & when was it initiated?
1870- All citizens should vote
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What were the Jim Crow laws & when were they established? (8)
1890's- De jure segregation: schools, hotels, transport, swimming pools, restaurants, theaters, Marriage & sexual relationships
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What dies NAACP stand for and when was it established?
Ntional Association for the Advancement of Coloured People: campaign group set up by Du Bios & others
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When was the Plessy vs Ferguson & what did it decided?
1896:upheld the constitutionality of racial segregation laws for public facilities as long as the segregated facilities were equal in quality (but weren't)> 'separate but equal'
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What was the 'Classic Phase' of the CRM?
hdhdhd
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When and what was the March on Washington?
1963: for jobs & freedom- 'I have a dream'- peaceful mass support 250,000 march w/ King as orator/media figure head: massive media coverage
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What was the Civil Rights Act of 1964?
ended segregation in public places and banned employment discrimination > end of de jure segregation. JFK & then LBL after Kennedy's death
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When and what was Freedom Summer, Mississippi?
1964: Voter registration campaign organised by SNCC, SCLC & CORE
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When and what was the Selma Campaign?
1965: Campaign led by MLK for voting rights in Alabama. March from Montgomery to Alabama> Police responded with violence
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When and what was the Voting Rights act?
1965: Empowered federal government to oversee voter registration across America. Ended ability of local governments to deny black citizens the rights to vote (through tests etc).
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What was the '1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act & Higher Education Act'?
funding given to education to help poorer states in South increase numbers of black students at University
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Who were the main opposition of the 'Brown vs Board of Education' 1954? (3)
White Citizens' Council, KKK- Emmett Till, Southern Manifesto
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What is the difference between de jure & de facto change?
De jure: segregation by law, De facto: segregation not by law
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What de jure change came from the Brown vs Board of Education case, 1954
Judge Earl Warren ruled that segregation in schools was illegal> end to 'separate but equal' (Eisenhower- no comment)
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What de facto change came from the Brown vs Board of Education case, 1954
Manifesto encouraged Americans to resist desegregation
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What de jure change came from Brown II, 1955?
Segregation should happen with deliberate speed- VAGUE
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What de facto change came from Brown II, 1955?
By 1957: only 3% of southern black children in desegregated schools (1968: 58%)
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Role of MLK in the Montgomery bus boycott 1955-6 (3)
setting up MIA- role of church/ popular support. Organised boycott
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Role of MLK in the formation SCLC 1957
Founder of SCLC
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Role of MLK in the Little Rock Campaign 1957
Provided inspiration
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Role of MLK in the Greensboro Sit-ins 1960
provided inspiration- not initially involved but soon participated & helped coordinate action in Atlanta
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Role of MLK in the Freedom Rides 1961
did not join but gave a speech at a rally supporting the Freedom Riders
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Role of MLK in the Albany Movement 1961-2
Arrested & released to prevent publicity. King felt Albany's aims were too vague & lacked focus- learnt from this
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Role of MLK in the Birmingham Campaign 1963
Led protest for FIRST TIME (his main focus)- was arrested & wrote a letter in prison defending civil disobedience- showed he could lead up front & force desegregation even through artificially engineered violence
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Role of MLK in the March of Washington 1963
Organised march under slogan 'For Jobs & Freedom'. Peaceful. 'I had a dream': charismatic, good orator, ideal leader for television age & speech was brilliant
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Role of MLK in the Civil Rights Act 1964
It was King's actions which promoted Kennedy & Johnson to act
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Why is MLK criticized for his role in the Selma campaign?
. cooperated too closely w/ fedderal gov. and was potentially attempting to dominate the campaign
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What was the main opposition of the Montgomery Bus boycotts?
Montgomery authorities- arrested King & 156 others
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What de jure change came from the Montgomery Bus Boycotts, 1955-6?
Browder V Gayle (1956) led to decision to desegregate buses (Browder had been arrested for refusing to give up seat)
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What de facto change came from the Montgomery Bus Boycotts?
change in Montgomery)- black bus drivers- but change across South was slow
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What was the main opposition concerning the formation of the SCLC?
White Southern States
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What was the main opposition of the Little Rock Campaign
Orval faubus- Loc. Gov.- even closed school after Eisenhower's intervention
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What was the main opposition of the civil rights act 1957
opposition in congress- especially democrats- weakened bill
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What de facto change came from the Little Rock campaign
little de facto change- 1960 only 6.4% southern black children in integrated schools
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What de jure change came from the Little Rock Campaign
Eisenhower ordered Faubus to allow students in. Faubus closed schools> Cooper V Aaron (1958)> illegal to prevent segregation for any reason
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What de jure change came from the civil rights act 1957
Anyone obstructing blacks from voting to be tried> small fines/short sentences in prison (6 months)
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What de facto change came from the civil rights act 1957
only 3% increase in black voters by 1960
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What was the main opposition of the Greensboro Sit-ins 1960
NAACP refused to 'represent a bunch of crazy coloured students' (Marshall)
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What de jure change came from the Greensboro Sit-ins 1960
1960 civil rights act
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What de facto change came from the Greensboro Sit-ins 1960
Business loss made Woolworth's desegregate all lunch counters by the end of 1961. End of 1963 161 cities desegregated restaurants& canteens. Many authorities took measures to avoid desegregation: Albany: closed public parks & took away library chairs
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Main opposition of the civil rights act 1960
Group of 18 Southern created a continuous filibuster- longest in history lasted 43 hours
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What de jure change came from the civil rights act 1960
it became a federal crime to segregate schools & voting registration was monitored more effectively by Federal insepection
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What de facto change came from the civil rights act 1960
Only 800 000 of South's 2 million black citizens were registered to vote by 1964
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Main opposition of Freedom Rides 1961 (3)
Anniston- local police didn't stop KKK fire-bombing, Freedom Riders' Bus Birmingham- Chief Eugene, 'Bull' Connor sent police home> green light for racists
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What de jure change came from the Freedom Rides
Attorney General Robert Kennedy enforced interstate bus services to desegregate
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What de facto change came from the Freedom Rides
By 1961 all signs enforcing segregation were removed from interstate buses & bus terminals
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Main opposition of Albany Movement
Pritchett prevented media attention
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What was the main failure of the Albany Movement
King realised his tactics had not worked & decided to focus on specific issues in the future
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What de jure change came from the Albany Movement
King led march & came to promising agreement with the city authorities- but they went back on aggreement
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What de facto change came from the Albany Movement
Pritchett made general promises that conditions would improve but this led to little concrete action
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Main opposition of the Birmingham Campaign (2)
Bull Connor- used legal methods to remove demonstrators. Police: used fire hoses & dogs-arrested 1300 black children
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What de jure change came from the Birmingham Campaign
Kennedy called a bill in his civil rights speech (June 11, 1963) "giving all Americans the right to be served in facilities which are open to the public- hotels, restaurants, theaters, retail stores'. Also a 'greater protection for the right to vote'
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What de facto change came from the Birmingham Campaign
Schools & public places remained segregated. Public opposition to desegregation in Birmingham> 4 months later KKK bombed 16th street Baptist Church (Birmingham's largest African-American church). Early 60s Black unemployment x2 the national average
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Main opposition of the march on Washington
Police:presence turned out to be unnecessary: noted for its civility & peacefulness
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What de jure change came from the March on Washington (2)
solidified support for new civil rights legislation & gave gov. power to force southern states to desegregate. Led to civil rights act of 1964 which explicitly outlawed the segregation of any facility or public place
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How many were in favour of the Civil Rights Act 1964 bill?
64%
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What de jure change came from the civil rights act of 1964 (4)
Outlawed segregation of any facility or public place/school. Gave commission on civil rights power to enforce desegregation. Mage Fair Employment permanent. Act spelled the end of legal segregation in the South
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What de facto change came from the civil rights act of 1964 (3)
1968:58% black children still in segregated schools. 214 cities desegregated by the end of 1965. Insufficient de facto change (particularly in north)
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What did the 1965 Moynihan Report highlight?
the income of black workers was only 53% of national average income. NO VOTING OPPORTUNITIES GIVEN
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Main opposition of Mississippi Freedom Summer
Local KKK & police: resistance to voter registration campaign> black homes & churches were bombed- 80 beatings, 35 shootings & 1000 arrests.
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How many black people attempted to vote during Mississippi Freedom Summer and how many actually voted
17,000 tried to vote but only 1600 succeeded to vote due to opposition
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What de jure change came from the Mississippi Freedom Summer
voting rights act, 1965 (Selma pushed this further)
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Main opposition of 1965 Selma Campaign
Local police: used cattle prods against protesters- responsible for Jimmie Lee Jackson murder (26 yr old black man who had been protecting his mum & grandma from brutal police beatings)
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What de jure change came from the Selma Campaign (3)
Massive de jure victory> Voting Rights Act 1965 & 1965 Elementary & Secondary Education Act & Higher Education Act
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What de facto change came from the Selma Campaign (3)
1965-6 further 230,000 black peps registered to vote across South (added to 800,000 in 1963) 1966: 4southern states had fewer than 50% of black citizens registered to vote. Act more effective in North-nom of voters went from 4m in 1960- 6m in 1965
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What did the increase in black voter registration (after the Slema Campaign) lead to?
an increase in number elected to govt positions eg Robert C Henry became first black person to be elected mayor of an American city (Springfield)
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What was the Classical Phase of the CRM
1954-64:The beginning of the legal foundations of segregation being broken down
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What was the difference between segregation in the North and South during the Classical Phase
South: segregation was more strictly enforced (through violence etc) and was de jure, North:more defacto, e.g black people living in same area due to poverty. There was violence in the north but was worse in the south
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Card 2

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What and when were the Freedom Rides?

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1961: Black & white activists traveled by bus from DC to New Orleans- faced violence & firebombing. All signs were taken down by Sept '61

Card 3

Front

What was the Albany movement?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why did the Albany movement not succeed? (3)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What was the Civil Rights Act of 1960?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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