America: Opportunity and Equality

  • Created by: tobyf
  • Created on: 28-05-18 16:34
Name the 3 republican policies that lead to the boom, and why America was rich after the war
Laissez-faire, tariffs on imports and low taxes. America was rich as they had transported food & weapons to Europe during WWI
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What 4 factors lead to economic growth?
Mass production using machines and/or the assembly line, tariffs on imports, new advertising techniques and hire purchases (instalments) and credit (loan)
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How was Ford's car factory revolutionary?
1913: first production line created, a form of mass production. This allowed more cars to be made quicker (1 produced every 10 seconds by 1927), and so costs fell. This made the car industry the biggest employer, benefiting other businesses as well
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Who didn't benefit in the boom?
Farmers struggled in the 1920s as food demand fell after WW1. Workers in old industries lost their jobs. African Americans, Hispanics and immigrants were most likely to be unemployed. Laissez-faire didn't allow for help
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Why were the 1920s called 'the Roaring Twenties'?
There was great social and cultural change, many rejected traditional values, people had more leisure time, cars more affordable. Urban people experienced these things more than rural people
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What were the new forms of entertainment?
Radio: most homes owned one, over 508 by the end of 1922. Jazz: bought to cities by AAs, popular amongst young, new dances made. Cinema: film industry boomed, Hollywood made 800 films a year. Sport: baseball became popular amongst others
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What changes did urban women experience in the 1920s?
Dress and behaviour: flappers had short hair, wore revealing clothes and smoked publicly, media encouraged this with role models and women could go out unaccompanied. 10 million women in work by 1929 due to WWI. Right to vote in 1920.
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What inequalities and limitations did some women face?
Traditional view of women's role continued, particularly in rural areas. Women in work were paid less than men. There were few female politicians
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What was prohibition?
When alcohol was banned staring in 1920 after movements claiming it tore apart family life. It reduced alcohol consumption by 30%, but lead to an increase in organised crime and speakeasies. The laws were widely ignored.
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What problems were caused by gangs?
Gang violence was common - there were 130 murders but no arrests in Chicago in 1926-27. Bribery and corruption was rife. Gangsters became rich, e.g. Al Capone, organiser of the St Valentines Day Massacre, which caused an end to prohibition in 1933.
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What problems did African Americans face?
Racism was rife, particularly in south, where AAs has worse education and housing and couldn't vote. They faced discrimination from the KKK, who organised lynchings; 300 from 1919-1925. Many moved to north for work and more freedom.
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What problems did immigrants and suspected Communists face?
1917 Russian revolution spiked fear of communism in USA. Post-war economic problems led strikes and riots, turning into a Red Scare. These campaigners were classed as Communists, along with many immigrants from Europe. Sacco & Vanzetti, 1927
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What did the Red Scare lead to?
Red Scare in USA led to quotas which prioritised immigrants from north-west Europe. First ones were introduced in 1921, more in 1924. By 294, USA was taking in 150k as opposed to 500k before 1914. They had poor housing and jobs, lived in same areas
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What caused the Great Depression?
Investment in the stock market was at an all time high, and people assumed it would keep growing. In 1929, the Wall Street Crash occurred, as people sold shares rapidly due to lost faith in the stock market.
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What economic impact did the Great Depression have?
Banks recalled loans, businesses couldn't repay and went bankrupt who laid off workers. Unemployment meant less business for companies who sold less and lowered wages and laid off more workers. Production dropped 40% from 1929-1933. Wages down 60%
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What did the Great Depression cause?
14 million unemployed, hoovervilles, reliance on charities, 238 people admitted to NY hospitals with severe malnutrition in 1931.
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How did it affect farmers?
Demand for food went down, so US exports fell from $10bn to $3bn form 1929 to 1932. Many went bankrupt, losing jobs & homes. Dust Bowl in south (soil erosion caused by drought & wind) destroyed farms. 2.5 mil farmers migrated to west coast for work
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What did Hoover do to help?
Laissez-faire beliefs: known as do nothing President. Introduced tax cuts to keep wages high. Put tariffs on overseas goods, just reduced int'l trade. in 1932, bonus marchers asked for war pensions early. Tear gas used to ward them off
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What did Roosevelt promise to improve?
He promised a New Deal for Americans. This included an active govt, he would spend money to create jobs and use experts to advise how to boost economy. He travelled 20800km around USA, giving 76 speeches. Won by landslide 7 million votes.
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What did Roosevelt do in his first 100 days?
Closed all banks, gradually reopening healthy ones. FERA provided soup kitchens, nursery care and blankets for poor. NRA controlled industry and boosted wages. PWA created building projects. AAA gave machinery to farmers. CCC helpd young men get jobs
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Achievements of the New Deal?
Restored confidence, helped trade unions, created millions of jobs, improved banking system, less businesses failed, standards of living rose for many, AAs benefited from some alphabet agencies, NAs got money to improve living conditions.
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Criticisms of the New Deal?
Huey Long: New Deal didn't go far enough, businesses had too much power. Roosevelt was interfering too much. Took power away from local govt. US recovered slower than some European countries, unemployment not solved til WWII. Discrimina'n still rife
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Explain changes to popular culture in the 1930s
Most popular forms of entertainment was radio & film. 28 million homes owned radios, big companies used advertising on it. Development of films in late 20s made 30s boom year (Golden Age) for Hollywood. Musicals, gangster & horror films very popular.
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What impact did the war have on American industry?
1942, War Production Board organised production and recruitment. Critical business leaders now helped Roosevelt. 500k new businesses made. Lend Lease set up, stimulating production. $10bn goods sent to Europe. 1944, US making half of world's weapons
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How did WWII end unemployment?
War Bonds gave govt quick money, which they could repay later. Farmers got a huge boost thanks to food demand. 14 mil US workers in factories. General Motors took on 750k to help build weapons. Unemployed people worked in factories or in army.
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What impact did WWII have on African Americans?
US army included over 1 million AAs - the war highlighted the problem of racism in USA. They fought to defeat racist Nazi regime, whilst they faced racism back home. Went to UK, saw less discrimination. By 1944, 2 million AAs worked in factories
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What did WWII result in, change wise?
Membership of NAACP rose to 500k. % of women in workplace rose from 35% to 50% from 1941-44. 1/3 of plane construction workers were women. 60% of managers said best workers were women, wages increased. Expected to return to household duty after war
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Why did consumer spending increase in the post-war years?
More people shared the wealth. An average American citizen earned 3x more than a UK citizen. USA produced half of world's goods, and consumed a lot of them. The American Dream: getting the latest goods. Hire purchases and credit cards could be used.
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How did TV ownership affect people's attitude and spending?
1948: under 1% of people owned a TV. By 1958: 83%. Kid's shows, soap operas and sport very popular. Families watched together. Latest consumer good promoted through adverts and in households in soap operas. There were new role models, news and ideas
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How did rock and roll music have an impact on youth culture?
1950s: teenagers had money to spend but no work or family responsibilities. They identified themselves different from their parents through different clothes, leisure activities & music. Rock & roll popular with youth, Elvis Presley had over 170 hits
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What did fear of communism lead to?
WWII closely followed by cold war, an arms race between US and USSR. It made ordinary people anxious and the govt worry about spies. This caused another red scare, of which there were 2 main strands: McCarthyism and HUAC
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What was House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)?
HUAC set up before 1938 to investigate suspected communists. They gained fame post-war by investigating film stars; some were blacklisted from Hollywood. You had to be a patriot; anyone who criticised US was seen as a potential communist
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What was McCarthyism?
Named after Senator Joseph McCarthy, it meant extreme anti-communism. He was a Senator, so never a member of HUAC. Gained attention when claiming to have list of communists in govt. Accused army personnel, called a bully. Damaged US reputation
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How did legal challenges help end segregation in the USA?
1954: NAACP helped mount a legal challenge to school segregation for Linda Brown who had to walk past white schools to get to hers. She won the case, and the laws had to be changed. Some states refused. In Little Rock, troops were sent to enforce it
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What was the Montgomery Bus Boycott?
1955: Rosa Parks refused to give up seat for white person, she was arrested. The MIA was formed to organise a boycott, it's first leader was MLK. Passanger numbers fell, and profits fell by 65%. 1956: Supreme court ruled bus segregation was illegal
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What were some non-violent, direct action protest techniques?
Sit-ins: students sat in white seats of cafes. Companies changed their policy & 126 cities desegregated by end of 60. Freedom Rides: black & white students travelled by segregated interstate rail in '61. They were attacked by mobs, JFK had to step in
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What were some violent tactics used?
Nation of Islam led by Malcolm X, wanted AAs to form own state. Assassinated in '65. Black Panthers though blacks should arm themselves to force equality. 65-67: race riots. Poor relations between police & AAs. Black Power groups blamed 4 these riots
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How did MLK's campaign achieve the passing of the Civil Rights Act?
1963: 200k AAs, 50k whites marched to Washington, MLK gave 'I have a dream' speech. 1964 CRA: illegal to discriminate against people in housing & employment. 1965 Voting rights marches: 2.4% of AAs in Selma, Alabama registered to vote.
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How did MLK's campaign achieve the passing of the Civil Rights Act? (2)
This campaign to persuade people to register, marching faced violence organised by sheriff. 1965 Voting Act: states had to ensure proper voting took place, removed reading tests. 1968 CRA: stopped discr'n in housing. MLK assassinated in 1968
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What did JFK do as apart of his 'New Frontier'?
He got reforms through Congress such as increasing minimum wage and improving inner-city housing. Kennedy was assassinated in November 1963, leaving LBJ in charge.
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What reforms did LBJ push through to create a 'Great Society'?
War on poverty. 1964: Economic Opportunities Act improved education and training for disadvantaged. 1964 Development Act provided money to stop slum housing. 1965 Medicare and Medicaid provided insurance for over 60s and hospital care for poor
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What progress did women make in fight for equal rights?
1966: NOW formed. 1968: members adopted bill of rights calling on govt to ban sex discrimination at work, guarantee maternatiy leave, offer tax breaks for childcare, provide equal education and training, allow access to abortion/contraception
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What progress did women make in fight for equal rights? (2)
1963: Equal Pay Act set the principle for equal pay, but there were many exceptions. 1972: Equal Rights Amendment Act tried to close some of the loopholes. Women earn 70% of what a man earns for the same job. Supreme Court decided contraception
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What progress did women make in fight for equal rights? (3)
was legally available to unmarried women just as it was to married couples. 1973, Roe vs Wade: Supreme Court decision made abortion in 1st 3 months legal. They also ensured consistency across state lines
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What were some reasons for slow progress towards women's equality?
Changing laws ≠ changing ideas. Campaign didn't support all women. Many women were comfortable & didn't need feminism. Religious influences affected views. Many only cared about changes that affected them. Protests against sexist inst'ns were ignored
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Card 2


What 4 factors lead to economic growth?


Mass production using machines and/or the assembly line, tariffs on imports, new advertising techniques and hire purchases (instalments) and credit (loan)

Card 3


How was Ford's car factory revolutionary?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Who didn't benefit in the boom?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Why were the 1920s called 'the Roaring Twenties'?


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