The Roaring 20s

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What was America's policy of isolationism?
To remain isolated from foreign affairs.
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What was Warren Harding's policy?
'normalcy' - life before the war.
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Why didn't America trust Britain and France?
They thought that British and French colonies went against their ideas of democracy.
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Why didn't America join the League of Nations?
They were worried that joining the League would make then obliged to interfere in conflicts.
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What particular group of ethnic origin rejected the League of Nations?
The German and Austrian immigrants, as they didn't want their countries to pay huge reparations.
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What did the USA sell to Britain and France during WW1?
Arms, munitions and food.
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What industry did the USA take over after WW1?
Germany's chemical industry.
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What did developments in explosives stimulate?
The production of plastics.
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What did the American people believe they were entitled to?
'Prosperity'
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What was the state of mind that helped towards the Boom?
The aim to have a good house, quality food, prosperous job..
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What were the largest industries in America?
Steel, coal and textiles.
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How large of a population did America have available as a work force?
123 million
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What was Laissez-Faire?
The Republican policy of not getting involved with business.
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What was the Fordney-McCumber tariff?
A tariff on food that increased the price of foreign food goods to increase the sales of American goods.
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What was a trust?
Super corporations to dominate industries, such as Rockefeller in oil.
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What kind of new consumer goods were mass produced?
Telephones, radios, vacuum cleaners, washing machines..
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What was the rate of the Ford Model T in 1927?
1 every 10 seconds.
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What new types of mass advertising were used?
Posters, radio advertisements, travelling salesmen...
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What new purchase scheme was introduced?
'Buy now, pay later' credit scheme.
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How many radios were purchased on credit?
8 out of 10.
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How many cars were sold by 1919?
9 million.
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How many cars were sold by 1929?
26 million.
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How many radios were sold by 1920?
60,000.
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How many radios were sold by 1929?
10 million.
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How many phones were sold by 1915?
10 million.
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How many phones were sold by 1930?
20 million.
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How did the production of fridge units develop through the 1920s?
It increased from 5000 to 1 million units per year.
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How much was spent building national highways?
$1 billion.
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How many cars were made in 1900?
4000
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How many cars were made in 1929?
4.8 million.
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How many Ford Model Ts were created between 1908 and 1929?
15 million.
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How many people owned shares in 1920?
4 million.
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How many people owned shares in 1929?
20 million (out of a population of 120 million)
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How many new investors were speculators?
600,000
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How many of the shareholders in 1929 were big investors?
1.5 million.
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How much did US banks loan for speculating in 1929?
$9 billion.
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What was 'on the margin'?
Where a person had to put down only 10% of a share and borrow the rest to purchase it.
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What was the idea of speculation?
To buy shares and sell them again at a higher price.
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How much was Union Carbide worth in March 1928?
$145
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How much was Union Carbide worth in September 1928?
$413
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What was vital to the structure of the stock market?
Confidence.
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What would cause the stock market to collapse?
If there were more sellers than buyers.
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How much was lost during the Wall Street Crash?
$25 billion.
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How many shares were traded on the 24th October 1929?
12,894,650
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How many shares were traded on the 29th October 1929?
16,410,030.
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In 1929, what ratio of dollars loaned by banks went to the purchase of stocks?
2 out of 5,
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Who were the most privileged of immigrants?
Irish Americans, French Canadians and German Americans.
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What was the idea of the 'melting pot'?
That all ethnic backgrounds for form together to create 'Americans'.
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How many German backgrounds were in the US?
4.4 million.
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How many Irish backgrounds were in the US?
2 million.
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How many immigrants were in the US by 1910?
8.5 million.
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What university was exclusive for African Americans?
Howard University.
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What did W.E.B.Dubois do?
Created the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
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What did the NAACP do?
Campaigned for laws against lynching and racial segregation.
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What did Marcus Garvey do?
Founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA).
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What did the UNIA do?
Helped African Americans to set up business.
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How many were in Marcus Garvey's movement by 1921?
1 million.
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What were the main temperance movements during Prohibition?
The Anti-Saloon League and Women's Christian Temperance Union.
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What did the dries claim about the damage of alcohol?
3000 infants were smothered yearly due to drunkedness.
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What was the Volstead Act?
A ban on the manufacture, sale or transportation of intoxicating liquors.
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How did shipments of lettuce change between 1920 and 1928?
It increased from 14,000 to 52,000.
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How did divorces change from 1914 to 1920?
It increased from 100,000 to 200,000
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How many women were in jobs by 1929?
10 million.
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What were women allowed to do?
Smoke/drink/kiss in public.
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What was a flapper?
A woman who had more freedom during the Boom.
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How long did it take to find a drink in New Orleans?
35 seconds.
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How long did it take to find a drink in Chicago?
21 minutes.
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What was illegal alcohol called?
Moonshine.
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What were the dangers of moonshine?
It could be poisonous and was a fire hazard.
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How much of the illegal alcohol came from Canada?
2/3.
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How much did Al Capone make a year?
$60 million.
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How much did organised gangs make from the sale of illegal alcohol during Prohibition?
$2 billion.
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What did the bootlegger George Remus give to his guests at a party?
$25,000 cuff links to the men and a car to each woman.
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How many gangland murders occurred in Chicago between 1926-27?
130.
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What prominent Chicago Politician did Al Capone control?
William H. Thompson.
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How much did Capone spend on a soup kitchen?
$30,000
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How many of Bugsy Marone's gang were murdered during the St Valentine's Day Massacre?
7
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Why was life expectancy bad for African Americans?
It was only between 45 - 48, whereas the whites lived between 54-59.
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Why was housing generally poorer for African Americans?
There was poorer housing with more expensive rents.
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How much did a Ford Model T cost?
$290.
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What were the struggles for prohibition agents?
They were poorly paid and had to cover large areas alone.
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What was the ration of corrupt Prohibition agents?
1 in every 12.
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How many arrests did Isadore Einstein and Moe Smith make?
4,392.
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What was the National Origins Act?
It reduced the immigration quota to 2% of the American population.
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Before the NOA, what was the maximum amount of immigrants from a country allowed into America?
3% of the American population.
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How many were unemployed at the peak of the Boom in 1929?
5% of the population.
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How many immigrants were coming in between 1901-1910?
1 million per year.
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How many immigrants were coming in, in 1929?
150,000 per year.
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What KKK film was played in the White House?
'The Birth of a Nation'
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How many members did the KKK have by 1924?
4.5 million.
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Who was the leader of the KKK?
Grand Wizard David Stephenson.
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What states had governors in the KKK?
Oregon and Oklahoma.
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What was a WASP?
White Anglo-Saxon Protestant.
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How did the KKK treat African Americans?
They murdered them by lynching and hangings.
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Why was the KKK so strong?
It had powerful political influences.
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Why were women still suffering during the Boom?
They were still being paid less than men, and were only being employed due to their cheap labour, and still ahd no access to political positions.
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What did coal miners face competition from?
Oil and electricity industries.
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What did coal miners do in 1928?
Formed a strike in North Carolina about wages.
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What were the wages for coal miners?
$18 dollars for men and $9 dollars for women per week.
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Why was the weekly wage poor for coal miners?
It was substantially less than the living wage of $48 per week.
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What was the Red Scare?
The increasing fear of Communism, which lead to racist attitudes.
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What happened in April 1919 which caused a fluctuation in the Red Scare?
A bomb in Milwaukee went off and killed 10 people.
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What happened during May 1919?
Bombs were delivered to 36 prominent Americans.
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How many suspects of radicalism were filed by J. Edgar Hoover?
60,000.
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How many suspects were deported by J. Edgar Hoover?
10,000.
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How many of the deported suspects had any factual basis from J. Edgar Hoover?
556.
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Who were two Italian immigrants falsely executed for being anarchists in 1927?
Sacco and Vanzetti.
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How much did farming income drop by in 1928?
From $22 billion to $13 billion.
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Why did farming sales diminish?
Europe imported less food
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Who did American farmers face direct competition from?
Efficient Canadian farmers.
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How much food did an average farmer grow?
Enough to feed his family and 14 others.
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Why was the surplus food bad for farming?
The prices plummeted.
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How many were impacted due to problems in farming?
60 millions.
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How many were forced off their farming land throughout the 1920s?
6 million.
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How many African Americans became unemployed due to them being forced to find work in the city following poor farming?
750,000.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What was Warren Harding's policy?

Back

'normalcy' - life before the war.

Card 3

Front

Why didn't America trust Britain and France?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why didn't America join the League of Nations?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What particular group of ethnic origin rejected the League of Nations?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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