America: Democracy (2)

  • Created by: AshyBoy
  • Created on: 05-11-18 11:43
THE PARTY NOMINATION PROCESS
blah blah blah
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What are invisible primaries?
Candidates announce running. Feel the waters, raise funds, get publicity
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What is an example of a candidate announcing his candidacy?
Ted Cruz (March 2015) and Hillary Clinton (April 2015)
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What are primaries/caucuses?
They are party conventions that occur state wide to determine who will be voted the parties candidate.
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When do candidates choose their VP?
A couple of days before the election
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What are the national party conventions?
They are conventions held by a party, usually in a swing state, in order to announce the candidate and VP officially as running for the presidency
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What is the Electoral College?
They are a third party that votes on behalf of their state for whoever won the state.
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What is the section that outlines the requirements for presidents in the constitution called?
Article 2
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What are the constitutional requirements for a presidential candidate? (3)
To be a natural born citizen, be over 35 years old and have been president for less than 2 terms (4 years).
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What are the non-constitutional requirements for a presidential candidate? (7)
Usually have to have some political experience (Trump), Ability to access alot of money, Good policies, Likable characteristics, Confident speaker, Usually married, major party endorsed
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What are open primaries and examples of some?
Voter can change vote the day of the vote (South Carolina, Texas, Alabama)
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What are semi-closed primaries and examples of some?
Allows the voter to vote for the major parties and independent only if they have registered. (North Carolina, Rhode Island, New Hampshire)
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What are closed primaries and examples of some?
Only registered supporters of major parties can vote - cannot vote for independent (Louisiana, Florida, New York)
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What are the advantages of the primary caucus process? (3)
Successful policies of losing candidates adopted by winners, Tests the candidate ability to raise funds and overcome obstacles, Increased participation
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What are the disadvantages of the primary caucus process? (4)
Divides the party and causes negative campaigning, can exclude certain voters, different rules for different states, early states influence later states
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Caucuses tend to attract more ___________ voters than primaries but the _______ is lower.
ideological - turnout
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What evidence shows that those that raise the most money in the initial stages are not always the winners of the nomination? (3)
Ben Carson raided $58 mil and Ted Cruz raised $54.7 mil but Trump only raised $25.5 mil and still won.
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The person who wins their parties invisible primary goes onto win the _________
candidacy
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What are some exceptions to this pattern? (3)
Republican Rudy Giulian in 2008 lost the nomination to John McCain; Democrat Howard Dean in 2004 lost the nomination to John Kerry and Democrat Hillary Clinton in 2008 lost the nomination to Obama
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With regards to the timetable of primaries and caucuses by February 2016 how many had take place?
4
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How many had taken place by March?
More than half
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Why would a candidate drop out?
If they run out of funds or if they don't have much support anymore
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What happens to their delegates when they drop out?
They are free to vote for another nominee but the drop out could also direct them to another candidate by a show of support
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Why would a candidate drop out?
If they run out of funds or if they don't have much support anymore
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What happens to their delegates when they drop out?
They are free to vote for another nominee but the drop out could also direct them to another candidate by a show of support
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PRESIDENTIAL RACE
blah blah blah
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What factors determine the timing of presidential primaries and caucuses?
Some are early to bring attention to their state - Some states coincide their elections to create a regional primary (2016, 11 states coincided on "Super Tuesday")
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Where is the first caucus held?
Iowa
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Why is this caucus significant?
It establishes the strongest candidate in a party
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What is a Republican example of the Iowa caucus giving legitimacy to a candidate?
2016 - Ted Cruz 27%, Trump 24%, Rubio 23%
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What is a Democratic example of the Iowa caucus giving momentum to a candidate?
In 2008 Clinton lost Iowa to Obama which then gave him momentum to win the nomination. In 2016 Clinton won Iowa over Sanders which led to her nomination.
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Since 19__ when ____ _______ won the democratic nomination no democratic candidate has won the nomination without Iowa
1992 - Bill Clinton
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What is the first primary?
New Hampshire
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What is the significance of New Hampshire?
While winning it does not guarantee the nomination it results in high media coverage. (Obama got a $50 million donation even though he lost because he made an impressive showing in the polls)
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What is an example of New Hampshire not affecting results?
Obama lost it in 2008, Bill Clinton in 1992, Bush Jr in 2000
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What factors affect voter turnout? 1/4
Demographic - Educated, older, richer people vote more than the opposite. North Carolina - Over half had college degrees, 1/3 earned more than 100,000 & 3/4 over 45. Only 6% younger than 24.
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How is the North Carolina data evidence mixed up a bit though?
In the same primary 37% of voters identified as "very conservative" even though primaries are seen to attract a more mixed crowd
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What other factor affects voter turnout? 2/4
Type of primary - Open primaries attract more voters but semi closed and close primaries attract less - (In 2012 of the 11 Republican open primary states 10 saw an increase of voters. Of 15 closed primary states only 2 saw an increase.
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What open primary states are an example of having higher turnout?
2012 - Wisconsin up 92% and Mississippi up 105%
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What closed primary states are an example of having lower turnout?
2012 - Connecticut down 61% / 2008 - New York down 71%
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What other factor affects voter turnout? 3/4
How competitive the nomination race is. (In 2008 and 2016 when competition was high turnout was significantly higher than 2004 and 2012
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What other factor affects voter turnout? 4/4
Whether the nomination has been decided or not (2008 New York Republican competition was high and vote in February - 642,000 but in 2012 in April after Romney had already won - 190,000)
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What were the McGovern-Fraser reforms?
A series of reforms introduced to make the democratic method of voting more based on popular opinion and more transparent. (Opposed to being hand picked by high ranking Democrats behind closed doors)
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What were these reforms a response to?
The rioting during the 1968 Democratic Convention when the party nominated the late candidate Huber Humphrey instead of an Anti-War candidate like the people wanted in the wake of Vietnam.
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What is an advantage of this new nomination process? 1/4
Increased Participation - 1968 = 11.7 mil (11%) / 1988 = 35 mil (21%) / 2016 = 61 mil (30%)
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What is disadvantage of this new nomination process? 1/7
Process is too expensive for candidates - 2016 = Clinton ($275 mil), Sanders ($235 mil), Trump ($90 mil), Cruz ($90 mil)
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What is another advantage of this new nomination process? 2/4
More choice of Candidates - 1968 = 5 candidates / 2016 = 22 candidates
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What is another disadvantage of this new nomination process? 2/7
Too much media influence - Televised debates have an affect on opinion polls and have become bitter personal battles of wit rather than policy. Also, the candidate that has seen the most media coverage tends to get more votes e.g. Obama, Trump
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What is another advantage of this new nomination process? 3/4
Open to unknown politicians and the average citizen - 1976 = Jimmy Carter / 1992 = Bill Clinton / 2008 = Obama / 2016 = Trump
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What is another disadvantage of this new nomination process? 3/7
Voter Apathy (especially during a second term run) - 1996 = (17.6) / 2000 = (19%) / 2004 = (17%)
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What is another advantage of this new nomination process? 4/4
Grueling Race - The intense campaign is seen to be a good indicator of a strong president. 1992 - Senator Paul Tsongas was liked and respected but having just come back from cancer his campaign schedule was light so he lost. 2008 - Obama vs Clinton
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What is another disadvantage of this new nomination process? 4/7
Voter Illrepresentation - Voter's tend to be older and better educated. 2012 = Ron Paul (Libertarian) won 10% in 40 states but still didn't get alot of delegates.
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What is another disadvantage of this new nomination process? 5/7
The Process is too long - 1960 = John Kennedy announcement 66 days before / 1968 = Nixon 40 days before / 1972 = McGovern 414 days before / 2016 = Ted Cruz 11 months before
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What is another disadvantage of this new nomination process? 6/7
Super Delegates - Neither Obama or Hillary in 2008 had enough delegates to win the nomination so super delegates were assigned and Obama was given the nomination. Some claim the 2016 election was rigged against Bernie Sanders via the super delegates
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What is another disadvantage of this new nomination process? 7/7
Peer Review - The public were given more of a voice in electing their nominee but arguably politicians are the ones that know who is best suited not the average worker.
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What are some possible reforms to this new system?
Abolish caucuses, abolish closed primaries, rotate the order of primaries, Tie super delegate votes with their state primary, allow candidates to select their own delegates.
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NATIONAL PARTY CONVENTIONS
blah blah blah
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What are the formal functions of the NPC's?
Choose presidential candidate through delegate vote; Choose vice presidential candidate; Decide on party platform through listening sessions in each state.
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What are the informal functions of the NPC's?
Promoting party unity (Healing from primaries e.g. Obama 2008); To rile up the party faithful e.g. up & comers and celebrities; To rile up voters e.g. sound bites & speech (conventions usually held in swing states)
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Obama needed the ____ _____ delegate votes to beat Hillary in 2008. He needed an ________ majority to win.
2,210 - super - absolute
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What percentage of the delegates did Romney have?
90%
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What is a balanced ticket?
Using the vice presidents strengths to balance out the presidents weaknesses e.g. Obama & Biden (Older Biden, 9x more years in office (4 & 36) and white)
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What is "potential in government" in regards to choosing a VP?
What political power the VP can offer once in office e.g. Bush and Cheney 2000 (Cheney had weight in executive branch) & Trump and Pence (Trump needed a well respected VP to get Republicans in line and to please the social conservatives on abortion
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What role does party unity play in the nominees choice in running mate?
Sometimes the VP is chosen to bring the party together and heal after the primaries e.g.Reagan chose Bush Sr to be VP in 1984 after a bitter round of primaries to unite the party. But sometimes the primaries get so bitter that a this isn't possible
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Before ____ the vice president was announced ______ the convention but Walter _______ broke this tradition by announcing before so now all candidates announce their VP's before the conventions
1984 - during - Mondale
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What are the significant roles of the NPC's?
Selecting the presidential nominee (Candidates need 51% of delegates) / Decide the party platform (Delegates vote and debate over party policy going into presidential election)
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What are the superficial roles of the NPC's?
Act as publicity for candidate (Conventions usually held in swing states / To unite the party (Losing candidates often endorse the winner e.g. Hillary and Bernie / To rally party activists (People who organise and donate party events)
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What is evidence for and against endorsement of the winner?
Trump - Chris Christie and Ben Carson endorsement BUT in Cruz's speech he made fun of Trump and didn't endorse as strongly as other candidates / Clinton - All candidates supported her including Obama.
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What is evidence for and against the placing of the NPC's in swing states to influence the vote?
Trump had the GOP NPC in Ohio and he won it BUT Clinton had her DNC in Pennsylvania however Trump won that too.
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What is evidence for speeches helping the candidates rile up voters?
Trump's speech did help his polls (3-4% increase) / Clinton also had a good speech with appealed to her voter base.
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What is evidence for NPC's being spectacles to attract publicity?
Clinton had Katy Perry and Lady Gaga perform which garnered media attention BUT it also got publicity due to allegations that the elections were rigged against Sanders / Average viewership of conventions in 2016 was 34 mil
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Who pays for these conventions?
The tax payers
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How much do these events cost?
2012 - $18 million for each party plus $50 million for security for each party which ends up with $136 million overall.
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How does this compare with previous years?
1980 – $4,416,000 / 1996 – $12,364,000 / 2012 – $18,248,300
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Card 2

Front

What are invisible primaries?

Back

Candidates announce running. Feel the waters, raise funds, get publicity

Card 3

Front

What is an example of a candidate announcing his candidacy?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are primaries/caucuses?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

When do candidates choose their VP?

Back

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