Amazon Solution Architect Associate Flashcards

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What is a relational Database?
Simple database with set feilds always cotaining the same value types in each feild. ie: ID = 1,2,3,4,5,etc..
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What are the 6 types of realtional databases?
SQL Server, Oracle, MySQL Server, PostgreSQL, Aurora and MariaDB
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What is a non relational database?
Document orentated databases. Documents are record sets, a more advanced version compared to relational. DynamoDB is an example in AWS
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What is Database Warehousing?
Used to pull very large amounts of data and complex datasets, usually for management in a business scenario to pull employee, product statistics
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Whats the difference between Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) vs Online Analytics Processing (OLAP)?
They differ in which database technology you'd use. OLTP is less resource intensive and is usually a one time quier. OLAP is when someone is trying to analysis a large amount of traffic with multiple factors and feild sets being taken into account.
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What is Elasticache?
A tool used to deploy, operate and scale in memory cache in the cloud. It will cache the most used parts of your database allowing for much faster read/write speeds compared to standard disk based databases.
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What is S3?
S3 is amazons flat file storage solution which can be managed with a multitude of permissions.
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What does an S3 Bucket URL look like?
s3.region.amazon.aws.com/bucketname/requestedfile
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What is DMS?
Data Migration Service, allows you to move in house production databases into the cloud. Any updates to the local database while being migrated will be replicated.
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Can DMS (Database Migration Service) assist you in moving your local production database into the cloud on a different database technology?
Yes, using DMS you can take the local Schema of your 'oracle' database, AWS will then convert it into the language your new 'mySQL' database can understand. This service allows you to eliminate the dependecies on costly services requiring licensing.
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What is Elastic Beanstalk used for?
Runs DEV code on an automatically provisioned host. The host will be spec'd to best run your code.
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What is Lambda
Serverless code. When a trigger criteria is met, your code executes and AWS manage it. This allows you to create serverless tools which only run when you need them. Pro's: Reduction in cost.
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What is Elastic Map Reduce?
An AWS Compute service built to assist in the processing of large datasets
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What is CloudFront?
AWS Services which utilised Edge Locations to cache frequently used data within your enviroment to people not near AWS regions
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What is the durability of S3
99.999999999% (the 11 9's)
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What is the durability of RRS?
99.99% Reduced Redundency Storage offers less redudency compared to S3.
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What is the availability of RRS and S3?
99.99%
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Whats the difference between EBS and S3?
EBS is block based storage, similar to that of a harddrive. It can be used to mount images and run EC2 instances. S3 storage is for flat files and would not offer consistant read/write for image hosting
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Why might you use IA over standard S3?
Infrequently accessed offers much cheaper rates but has a retrivial fee per file, making it ideal for long term infrequently accessed critical data.
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You configure your bucket to backup to 'backupbucket'. All new files go to the backup location. How do you get legacy items to replicate?
Use your configured amazon CLI (Command line) and have a recursive copy setup.
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What are the two ways to control your AWS environment?
Console Access and CLI access?
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Why do you need your shared and private key?
To access amazon CLI
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What is S3's consistency model for PUTS on new objects?
read after write consistency. This means newly added or changed items may not replicate to other buckets straight away but you will never seen any corrupt data if you try to access it before its done, you will just see the original.
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Why might your private RDS fail to connect?
By default they are mapped to your external IP within security groups. You should map its security groups to one of your configured ones
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What are the 4 EC2 pricing models?
On Demand, Spot, Reserved and Dedicated Hosting.
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What happens if YOU terminate your spot instance?
You pay for the full hour. Even if you only use 1 minute.
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What happens if AMAZON terminate your spot instance?
Amazon give you the whole hour for free
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Why might you use dedicated host as your pricing model of choice?
Some complicance and regulations stop companies from being able to share hardware. Dedicated Hosting means you're the only one on the infrastructure. Cost is increased with this price model.
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Name the EC2 Instance Types
D2, R4, M4, C4, G2, I2, F1, T2, P2, X1
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Why might you use an Privision IOPS SSD over a standard one
At an additional cost you can get higher read/write speeds.
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What harddrives are bootable for an EC2 instances?
SSD Standard/Provisioned and HDD Magnetic
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How many times can you concurrently mount an EBS volume?
1, think of it like a physical hard drive. You'd only connect it to one computer at a time.
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Is termination protector turned on or off by default for EC2 Instances?
Off, you must turn it on (setting when configuring your instance)
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How do you stop the root EBS volume from being deleted when a EC2 instance is terminated?
During configuarion you are presented the option to disable termination upon 'stop'. Can also be done by editing an active ec2 instance.
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Can root volumes be encrypted by default?
No you need a third party tool. Example: Bitlocker
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Can additional harddrives be encrypted by default?
Yes
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Where do snapshots reside?
S3
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What are snapshots?
Point in time copies of volumes.
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How does a repeat snapshot work?
Incrementally. Only the blocks that have changed will be moved to the S3 stored snapshot.
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What is presistent from a volume restored from a snapshot?
Its encryption state. Encrypted snapshots = encrypted volumes.
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Can you share snapshots on the Amazon Market?
Yes, only if they are unencrypted
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What is Ephemeral Storage?
Ephemeral storage is another name for Instance Store Volumes. ISV's are obsolete to EBS volumes but are still in the exam. If the underlying host fails, you lose your data
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What is an Application Consistant Snapshot?
When trying to snapshot an instance that has a RAID-setup, data consistancy can be an issue. ACS is just a guideline on how to take a raidbased snapshot the correct way. (Stop the EC2 instance before snapping)
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How do you aquire metadata about an EC2 Instance via CLI?
Run the command: curl http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/
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What is the pricing model for Elastic File Storage (EFS)
Pay per storage you use.
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What is the consistency model of EFS?
Read after Write consistency (Same as S3)
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What is EFS's Replication Model?
Has to be the same region but can be spread across Availability Zones
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Whats an availability zone?
2 or more data centers within a region. Spread apart so a large scale outage SHOULDNT affect both.
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What does 169.254.169.254 refer to in AWS?
Used to lookup metadata 'curl http://169.254.169.254/meta-data/
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AWS Database backups allow you to restore your database to a specific ...
Minute, you can restore down to a second making backups extremely granular.
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How much free database backup do you get?
As much as your EC2 instance storage has. 10GB RDS instance = 10gb of S3 backup for free
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What happens to the RDS automated backups when the RDS is deleted?
They are deleted.
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What happens to DB snapshots when the database is deleted?
They remained stored within S3 and must be deleted serperatly.
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What happens when you restore a database?
It restores to a new RDS instance, meaning it has a new endpoint name
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How are databases encrypted on AWS and what type of encrpytion is used?
You select it when configuring the RDS and can't be done to existing databases, AWS Key management system is used.
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How do you encrypt an already active RDS?
You can't, you must spin up a new RDS thats encrypted and migrate the data from your old RDS to the encrypted one.
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Why would you copy a database snapshot?
To move it to a different Region
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What is a multi-AZ database?
A database which replicates all data to an identical RDS session in another availability zone. AWS handle an automatic fail over of database should the primary go down.
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What is Read-Replica?
Allows your single database to load balancer with clones of itself, Load balanced EC2 instances will look at all the read replica databases not just the primary allowing the load to be spread.
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Why might you use read replica?
For read intensive queries where you might not want to put the strain on the primary database. Example: Management reports, Dev testing, large sales on your website
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Whats the difference between Read Replica and Multi-AZ?
Multi AZ is just for DR purposes and not a preformance increase configuration. Read Replica isnt an affect DR config but great for read performance increase.
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What must you have turned on in order for read replica to work?
Automatic Backups (this is how they clone themselves so that each replica has up to date database entries)
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How many read replicas can you have?
5, although you can have read replicas of each read replica but with increased latency.
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Can you have read replicas of multi-AZ databases?
No.
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Whats the difference between RDS and DynamoDB?
DynamoDB scales automatically without downtime. Scaling on the fly. RDS is a more manual process and much more hands on. (exam heavy topic)
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DynamoDB is always stored on..
SSD storage
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What are the 2 types of read consistencies for DynamoDB?
DynamoDB has built in redundency over 3 geographically distinct DC's. You can choose 3 different types of data consistencies ; Eventual Reads (best preformance) & Strong Reads (fastest)
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How is DynamoDB priced?
Through 'Provisioned Throughput Capacity' Both write throughputs and Read throughputs, you are also charged for storage costs.
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DynamoDB is fairly expensive for writes, but extremely cheap for reads.
Remember this when going into the exam, good use cases are for systems that require to read a reliable database frequently with limited writes.
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What is amazon redshift?
Redshift is a large full managed data warehousing service.
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What is Elasticache?
Cache service used to remove a high amounts of latency for frequently accessed data.
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What are the two types of engines for Elasticache?
Memecached and Redis.
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What is a VPC?
A virtual private cloud, essentially a local area network in the cloud.
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How many Availability Zones can a Subnet span over?
1, a subnet can only reside within 1 AZ.
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How do two different VPC's communicate with each other?
Using inter-region VPC Peering, Public IP addresses, NAT Gateways, NAT Instances, VPN Connectors or Direct Connect Connections.
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How many internet gateways can you have in a VPC?
You can only have 1 per VPC. You will have scenario based questions asking how to fix slow internet on your VPC and an option will be to add additional IG's. IG's just give your VPC internet access, more doesnt achieve any additional benefit.
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If one AZ in your VPC region goes down, why will your internet access (if configured) remain active?
Internet gateways are automatically configured to be highly available across all AZ's in the region the VPC is hosted in.
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What is the difference between a Public and Private subnet within a VPC?
Public are internet facing, if you are permitted past the NACL an address will be returned. Private require a VPN connection or a Bastion jump from a public subnet host.
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Can two different AWS environments have their VPC's connect?
Yes, VPC peering spans across accounts and VPC environments
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What is transitive peering?
When a VPC connects to two other VPC's data isn't shared to all 3 environments, the VPC peering can see both but they cant see each other. If they could it would be Transitive peering. AWS does NOT tranisitve peer.
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How many unusable IP's are there within a subnet on AWS?
5 IP's, 4 of them are reserved low end (10.0.0.0-4) for the VPC service to use for setup and the other one is 10.0.0.255 as broadcasting isnt supporting in VPC's (10.0.0.0 range used as an example)
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Are security groups shared between VPC's?
No. Security Groups must be recreated when using a different VPC.
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Why would you disable source/destination checks on a EC2 Instance?
You must disabled source/destination checks when using a NAT enabled EC2 instance.
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What is a NAT Instance?
A machine used to work as your NAT routing device and sit behind a security group
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What is a NAT Gateway?
A gateway service built to be highly available, scale up to 10GBPS automatically and are the preferred method to NAT instances and much more secure as its all managed by AWS.
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NAT Instances must be in a....?
Public Subnet
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NAT Instances are bottlenecked by?
Instance size, networking throughput, Instance Specs
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How many Network Access Control Lists can be assigned to a subnet?
Only 1. Common Exam question
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NACL's cannot span multiple...
VPC's.
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True or False - By Default, newly created NACL block all traffic until specified otherwise
True, although the default AWS created NACL allows everything.
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How are AWS NACL's evaluated?
Lowest ruleID Value to Highester. Lowest takes priority
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What is a requirement when provisioning Elastic Load Balancers within your VPC?
At least two public subnets for the ELB to reside in. This is for high availability
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What are VPC Flow Logs?
Logs that monitor and track all network based flows between network interfaces within your VPC. They are sent to Cloudwatch
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Why might you not be able to enable flow logs on a 'Peered' VPC thats attached to the one you're currently managing?
The Peered VPC instance isn't within your AWS account. You can only enable flows on VPC's peered or otherwise if they reside within your overall account
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What is SQS?
Simple Queue Service, allows you to take tasks from one application and queue them. EC2 instances poll the SQS queue and takes them one at a time.
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Is SQS a pull based system or a push based system?
Pull based system, EC2 instances Poll the SQS queue not the otherway round.
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What is a visibility timeout?
When an SQS job is being actioned it is marked as invisble. Should the EC2 instance crash, the SQS job will be returned back to the queue after its visibility check timesout. The timeout is so accidently duplications dont happen.
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Does SQS have an API?
Yes.
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Whats the difference between a Standard Queue and a Fifo Queue?
Standard Queue's are SQS's default. The ensure at least 1 copy of each message is sent but on odd occasions multiple may be sent and in random order. Fifo as more structured, 1st in 1st out and only sends one with no duplicates but with 300 TPS
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What is the message size on an SQS message?
256KB
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What is the minimum, maximum and default time a message is allowed to remain in the queue
1 minute to 14 days. The default is 4 days
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What is the maximum visibility timeout?
12 hours. Anything longer and SQS isnt the recommended service.
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What is SQS long polling?
When an EC2 polls the SQS queue, if nothing is found it waits for a long period of time. Short polling instantly returns a message saying 'nothing found' then trys again. This drives additional costs as your ec2 instances are doing more work.
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What text does SQS support?
All types.
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What is SWF?
Simple Workflow Service, it's a way to coordinate tasks. Basically a virtual project manager following a flow chart you create
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What is the retention period for SWF tasks?
1 Year. Unlike SQS which is 14 days, SWF offers the support of much longer tasks.
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Can accidental duplicates appear in SWF?
No, SWF ensures single copies of tasks.
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What are the 3 SWF actors?
Workflow Starters (an app that can initate the workflow) Deciders ( things that make decisions in the event of a workflow failure) Activity Worker (Carries out the activity tasks)
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What is SNS?
Simple Notification Services, a simple web service that allows you to send application notifications to users or other applications.
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Whats a SNS topic?
A way of grouping multiple recipients and is an access point for allowing dynamic subscriptions for identical notifications. SNS will deliver the message in the correct format for each device.
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What is the key difference between SQS and SNS?
SNS is push based and SQS is pull based. SNS has no polling making it inexpensive/
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SNS is mainly managed from...
The AWS console.
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Why would you use SNS over SQS?
Cheaper and Less config and maintenece
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What is Elastic Transcoder?
A media transcoder in the cloud, takes standard media and transcodes it for use on mobiles, different resolution screens etc.
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What is SSE-S3?
Server Side Encryption - S3, MFA encryption that uses 256 AES as its standard. Encrypts all its keys with an additional master key
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What is SSE-KMS?
Server Side Encryption Key Management Storage. Seperate Permissions for the envelop key offers additional security to the S3 data. It also provides an additional audit trial of hows accessed the keys. You can manage the keys youself
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What is SSE-C
Server Side Encryption - Customer. Customer manages the keys, AWS handle the encryption
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What is the minimum size of an S3 - IA file?
128kb
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What is the minimum file size of a S3 Standard file?
0 bytes - these are called 'touched' files
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What is replicated on a file during CRR?
every object-level upload that you directly make to your source bucket. The metadata and ACLs associated with the object are also part of the replication.
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What access protocols arent supported with a ELB?
RDS and SSH
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How do you tell a multiple answer question apart from a single answer question in the exam?
Circle = 1 answer, Square = multiple
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What is cloudwatches metric retention period?
2 weeks
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Why might you not be able to FULLY delete versioned S3 items on a paticular bucket?
You are not the owner, only the bucket owner can deleted versions fully
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What is Kensis Streams?
Kenesis Streams are where all your selected data driven devices feed all there information to. This information is stored within Shards and then passed on to a fleet of EC2 instances from a single 'stream' allowing ease of management.
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What is Kenesis Firehose?
fully automated version of Kenesis streams. No retention period require as all data is passed through quickly and automatically stored in S3. Firehouse can work with Lambda to give it all the functionality lambda providies.
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What is a Kenesis Stream Shard?
Shard's are the storage facility of Kenesis stream, your data contributing devices sent all their events for analysis to the shards for storage
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What is the default and maximum storage of data within a Kenesis Shard?
Default: 24 hours. Maximum: 7 days
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What is Kenesis Analytics?
Analytics applied to both Kenesis Stream and Firehose. It's done whilst still in Kenesis and runs SQL Queries against your producer data. It can then be stored in S3, Red Shift and Elastic Search Clusters.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the 6 types of realtional databases?

Back

SQL Server, Oracle, MySQL Server, PostgreSQL, Aurora and MariaDB

Card 3

Front

What is a non relational database?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is Database Warehousing?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Whats the difference between Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) vs Online Analytics Processing (OLAP)?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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