Alzheimers

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  • Created by: Belle
  • Created on: 14-05-13 22:20
Definition
Alzheimers is the most common cause of dementia, describes a set of symptoms which can include loss of memory, mood changes and problems with communication and reasoning.
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Causes
Parts of the brain wearing away, damaging the structure, as parts wear away protein form and destroy further brain cells. No known cause of wasting brain cells, but many things affect it like age 65+, family history, head injuries
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Symptoms-mild
confusion, poor memory, mood swings, speech problems, result of gradual loss of brain function like memory or speech.
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Symptoms moderate
Hallucinations or delusions, obsessive or repetitive behaviour, disturbed sleep, incontinence, belief you have experienced something that never actually happened, causing depression and frustration.
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Symptoms severe
Difficulty swallowing, changing position, weight loss, increased vulnerability to infections and complete loss of both types of memory.
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Progression
No cure but different medications that help to delay development, create a care plan and state what aspects you need assistance with, different medications as the condition progresses.
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Reasons/causes
Age related condition, brain wasting disease where the brains structure is damaged, family history as its hereditary.
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Physical impacts
Loss of motor skills leading to limited mobility so depending on others, weight loss due to lack of appetite, leads to malnutrition, confusion of where you are may lead to dangerous situations when out somewhere, poor memory of people
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Physical impacts
which can then cause confusion for the sufferer, inability to look after themselves, incontinence, lack of personal hygiene leading to body odour, inability to produce clear speech, speech problems causing a lack of speech or hard to understand
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Intellectual impacts
Lack of concentration and memory can cause lack of intellectual ability, loss of cognitive abilities especially short and long term memory, impaired language ability in use of incorrect words, lack of coherent and rational thought, confusion
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Intellectual impacts
disorientation, impairment of learned skills like washing and dressing
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Emotional
Can become stressed and upset when they cannot remember certain things like when asked a question and they cant remember an answer, mild stage-fear of symptoms, feeling a burden, guilt, lack of self esteem, self confidence
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Emotional
moderate-frustration, depression and mood swings.
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Social
People with Alzheimer's may not have any friends, as previous ones might find it too hard to deal with so they become socially excluded and isolated, restricted interactions with others and the opportunity to develop relationships
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Social
Strain on existing relationships, people may not visit regularly as they find it too upsetting to see them in this state, so they are isolated.
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Financial
May have to leave job due to condition, may not be able to cope at work so loss of earnings, individual may make accidental decisions that can have major consequences like overspending, if still at work loss of earnings, due to regular check ups to
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Financial
see how its developing, may have to pay for residential/nursing care if not provided by state, restricted job opportunities, leading to limited or loss of income, cost of care and medication.
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Effect on family/carer
Family may find it hard if the individual doesnt remember who they are, carers may find it difficult to cope with behaviour shown in severe cases, exhaustion due to caring for them, strain on relationships, having to give up their job to care
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Effect on family/carer
guilt if they cannot cope, stress as symptoms of alzheimers are hard to cope with, bereavement of loosing them to alzheimers, resentment at the time needed to care for someone with it, embarrassment at their actions,
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Employment barriers: Lack of opportunity due to discrimination
If its in an early stage they may still be at work, employer and colleagues might notice they are confused, due to this they may miss promotions, as employer may not think they are strong enough
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Employment barriers: Lack of flexibility
If their condition is in early stages they are still at work, regular check ups to see how quickly its progressing.
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Societal barriers: resulting from ignorance, prejudice and discrimination
Due to lack of knowledge about the disease or just discriminating against their behaviour
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Societal barriers:social exclusion
Others may find it too hard to cope with, when they are with them, friends and family might find it too distressing or sad they may not visit so they could be excluded
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Societal barriers:Societal expectations
Unable to work so dont conform to society expectations like having a job.
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Economic barriers: Potential loss of earnings
Had to leave their job due to it developing, may have severe memory loss and confusion so cant cope with working anymore so have loss of earnings.
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Economic barriers: Requirement for specialist support not provided by state
May need specialist medication or care not provided by state, so have to pay for it, if they have a lack of income they miss out on the support
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Economic barriers: lack of access to benefits
Cannot apply for them due to being confused and cant complete forms themselves.
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Economic barriers: Access to benefits
May have it if carers help to fill out forms.
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Environmental barriers: Physical access to and within buildings
Can forget how to get to or in the building, forget where the specific place in the building they were going is.
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Environmental barriers:access to public and private transport
May forget where the local bus stop is and get confused.
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Risks:Bullying
Others may not know that they are suffering from the disease, may bully for lack of knowledge, bullying from their carers
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Risks:abuse
May not know they are receiving abuse due to confusion, person giving abuse may know they wont respond as they dont know whats being said, physical abuse from carers
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Risks:stress
Stressed in early stages as they become forgetful and cant remember certain things, affecting work as they might not be able to complete tasks properly or miss important things out, also when they cant remember what they want to say
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Risks:isolation/social exclusion
May forget where they are and forget how to get home so put themselves in danger, may not let them go out alone so become isolated, previous friends might not know how to cope with behaviour.
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Legislation: Equality act
Protects them from being discriminated against and provides legal rights in employment, relevant as ensures they arent discriminated against for having condition and if they are action would be taken, protects them and makes them feel safer
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Legislation: Mental health act
Aims to protect the right of people with mental health difficulties, protects individuals by exploitation of others, protects society from individuals behaving dangerously as a result of their mental health problems, this creates conflict between
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Legislation: Mental health act
individuals right for freedom and communities right to be safe, relevant as it ensures others do not exploit them and helps to keep them safe as they can be in danger of harming themselves, but also ensures community is safe from any behaviours
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Legislation: mental capacity act
Aims are to cover major decisions about property, financial affairs, health and welfare and where they live, covers everyday decisions about personal care when they cant make their own decisions, decision is made in your best interest,
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Legislation: mental capacity act
relevant as ensures they are provided with help when making the decisions, important if they have to make vital decisions as they may forget and become confused and not make a sensible decision
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Legislation:care standards act
aims to promote high standards of care and protects vulnerable people, relevant as ensures they receive highest standard of care and are well treated when receiving treatment for condition
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Workplace bullying policy
Anti-bullying policy for employees, providing safety and protection and ensures they are happy at work, relates if they are in early stages if they are still at work, if being discriminated against, employer could take action so it didnt happen again
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Workplace equal opportunities policy
Every work place has one, designed to ensure all employees have equal opportunities and treated the same, like promotion, helps to stop any discrimination and unfair behaviour that may be seen in the workplace and helps to keep them safe and happy
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Service provision: domiciliary care
If condition is advanced but not that bad that they need residential care, need the care if unable to do day to day tasks themselves, carer comes into their home and help with cleaning, preparing meals etc, allows them to stay in their home but costs
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Service provision:Day care
If condition is early stages, travel to day care centre to interact with others and provides them with social contact and the chance to socialise, help with transition to residential care, provided by charities or local authorities
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Service provision:Respite care
Give relatives/carer a break, also provides them with a break, allows them to take part in things they dont have a chance too due to caring.
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Service provision:Residential/nursing home care
Needed in late stage, unable to stay in own home anymore, provided with range of services on long term basis, receive supervision, personal care, helps prevent further injury or harm to them and is costly.
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Practitioners:Domiciliary care worker
Provide personal and domestic care at home, privately funded or local authority
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Practitioners:GP
Prescribe medication to delay development
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Practitioners:Psychiatrist/neurologist/physician
Involved in original diagnosis and prescription of medications
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Practitioners:OT
Provide aids/adaptations to promote independent living
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Practitioners:officer in charge of care home
Over see everything happening in the care home, ensures everyone is safe and cared for
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Practitioners:care assistant
As they lose the ability to do simple day to day tasks, can visit their home, provided by state, or private.
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Practitioners:hospital consultant
Provides medication, regular check ups to see how its developing, provided by state or private
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Practitioners:social worker
Assess the needs of them living at home, help put together care assessment and programme, provided by state, private or voluntary.
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Practitioners:community nurse
Promote healthy lifestyle, encourage them to maintain healthy weight, offer emotional support to family, provided by state or privately.
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Psychological LQF:Choice
Choice over actions, despite not fully knowing whats happening, they still need to be involved.
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Psychological LQF: Social contact
Chance to be with and interact with others, otherwise they can be isolated and withdrawn
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Psychological LQF: Social support
May be unsure of whats happening, so need someone familiar to act on their behalf
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Psychological LQF: Occupation
Something interesting or fun to do so they arent bored, like day centres
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Psychological LQF: Stimulation
Can experience activities that increase level of arousal to comfortable level, making lives more interesting not boring, like activities at a care home
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Psychological LQF: Psychological security
Need to know that they are being cared for properly, that they are safe and protected, so they arent in fear or anxious
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Psychological LQF: Equitable treatment
Treated fairly according to their needs, and not discriminated against
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Psychological LQF: Approval
When showing correct behaviours as they can forget their learned skills like washing/dressing, helps them to repeat behaviours
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Psychological LQF: Privacy
Own time and space
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Psychological LQF: Dignity
Treated with respect at all times, even if arent aware of the situation, as they cannot care for themselves, others doing it, it can be embarrassing
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Physical LQF:Freedom from pain
Comfortable as they can be like if they have a fall they should be cared for and given pain relief
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Physical LQF: Physical safety and hygiene
May not be able to do it themselves so domiciliary carer/relative should help
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Physical LQF:Nutrition
Need good nutrition as they can have weight loss
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Physical LQF: Physical comfort
Make quality of life better, need access to heating to stay warm
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Caring skills:Communication
Still receive attention and people make effort to communicate with them, even if they dont respond, like shown pictures of family/friends and have a conversation about them, helping them feel more relaxed and happier
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Caring skills:Observation
Since its progressive, care staff need to notice if their condition is worsening, such as wandering into other residents rooms'
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Caring skills:Social perception
Since they may have lost speech, care staff should read body language to prevent accidents
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Caring skills:Setting challenges
Due to memory loss, they may struggle with layout of the unit, so forget where to go and locating items, could label things to make fewer mistakes
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Caring skills:Modelling
Due to impaired performance of learned skills like washing/dressing, benefit from care staff showing appropriate behaviour and encouraging them to copy it
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Caring skills:Encouraging
Care staff may reward adaptive behaviour like copying washing dressing etc
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Caring skills:Reducing negative feelings
Behaviours of service users and others, defusing conflict as potential for aggression
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Caring skills:Creating trust
Needs to be trust between carers/relatives as when they are being cared for, they need to know they are safe and make them feel more relaxed
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Caring skills:Eye contact and facial expression
Receive it as they may be unsure or anxious about something you are asking them to do or may feel uncomfortable, can calm them down
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Caring skills:disengagement
Carers/relatives may need to disengage them if they become hostile or angry about a situation, like not remembering, like carer diverting from the situation for a short period of time to another task or client
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Caring skills: Physical contact
If anxious or upset to comfort them, like touching hand or arm
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Caring skills: Showing approval
When completing a task or remembering a persons name, ensure that they are encouraged and provide them with happiness as they know they have done well.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Causes

Back

Parts of the brain wearing away, damaging the structure, as parts wear away protein form and destroy further brain cells. No known cause of wasting brain cells, but many things affect it like age 65+, family history, head injuries

Card 3

Front

Symptoms-mild

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Symptoms moderate

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Symptoms severe

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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