Alternative Models of Memory

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Who first created the Levels of Processing theory?
Craik and Lockhart (1972)
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Describe the Levels of Processing theory.
The deeper the processing the longer the memory lasts. In the primary store (similar to STM) processing is shallow, whereas in the LTM it is deeper and therefore lasts longer
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What type of processing happens in which store?
Semantic- deep, acoustic- middle and sensory- shallow
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Craik and Tulving (1975)
Gave ppts a word list and asked them 1 of 3 questions about the word (sensory, acoustic or semantic)- then gave ppts a 180 word list and asked them to find the original words. Ppts remembered most semantic words- deeper processing better memory
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Mandler (1967)
Asked ppts to sort 52 cards into categories- the ppts were then asked to recall the words. They found those who had the most categories recalled the most- processing semantically improves memory
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Palmere et al (1983)
Gave ppts a document describing and African nation- 32 paragraphs, some detailed and some brief. Found that ppts remembered the detailed points rather than brief
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Morris et al (1977)
Similar test to Craik and Tulving but gave ppts a rhyming task- 'does it rhyme with boat?'- found that ppts remembered the acoustically processed words better
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Who came up with the Working Model of Memory?
Baddeley and Hitch (1974)
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What does the WMM explain?
The part of the memory that deals with complex tasks such as reading a sentence or completing a complex sum
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What are the three stores?
Phonological Loop, Visuo-spatial sketchpad and episodic buffer
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What is the phonological loop?
Deals with the acoustic information- split into Phonological store and Articulatory process by Baddeley (1986)- puts the sound of a word on a loop
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What is the visuo-spatial sketchpad?
Deals with how something looks (visual) and the relationship between things (spatial) e.g. counting how many windows are on your house
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What is the episodic buffer?
Store added by Baddeley (2000)- general store that stores information from all three stores and the LTM
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Baddeley et al (1975)
Asked ppts to track a small light whilst describing the angles on a letter 'F' or when performing a verbal task. Task 1 was easier than task 2- because it was using the same slave system
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Dolcos et al (2007)
Used fMRI scans- found that different areas of the prefrontal cortex were activated when doing two tasks using the same slave system compared with two tasks involving different stores
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Shallice and Warrington (1970)
Case study of KF- lost STM but had LTM- found his short term forgetting of auditory info was much greater than visual- couldn't remember letters or numbers but could remember meaningful sounds e.g. phone ringing- problem with phonological loop
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Eslinger and Domasio (1985)
Should be more than one central executive- the WMM one is too vague, doesn't explain anything & ignore the LTM so it is limited
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D'Espisito (2007)
General Working Memory may not be in one localised area but among the whole brain
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Comparison of the WMM to the MSM
More detailed account of STM and explains more complex things e.g. dual task performance
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Card 2

Front

Describe the Levels of Processing theory.

Back

The deeper the processing the longer the memory lasts. In the primary store (similar to STM) processing is shallow, whereas in the LTM it is deeper and therefore lasts longer

Card 3

Front

What type of processing happens in which store?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Craik and Tulving (1975)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Mandler (1967)

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